Open AccessOpen Access


Controlled Quantum Network Coding Without Loss of Information

Xing-Bo Pan1, Xiu-Bo Chen1,*, Gang Xu2, Haseeb Ahmad3, Tao Shang4, Zong-Peng Li5,6, Yi-Xian Yang1

1 Information Security Center, State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, 100876, China
2 School of Information Science and Technology, North China University of Technology, Beijing, 100144, China
3 Department of Computer Science National Textile University, Faisalabad, 37610, Pakistan
4 School of Cyber Science and Technology, Beihang University, Beijing, 100083, China
5 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd., Shenzhen, 518129, China
6 School of Computer Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, China

* Corresponding Author: Xiu-Bo Chen. Email:

Computers, Materials & Continua 2021, 69(3), 3967-3979.


Quantum network coding is used to solve the congestion problem in quantum communication, which will promote the transmission efficiency of quantum information and the total throughput of quantum network. We propose a novel controlled quantum network coding without information loss. The effective transmission of quantum states on the butterfly network requires the consent form a third-party controller Charlie. Firstly, two pairs of three-particle non-maximum entangled states are pre-shared between senders and controller. By adding auxiliary particles and local operations, the senders can predict whether a certain quantum state can be successfully transmitted within the butterfly network based on the basis. Secondly, when transmission fails upon prediction, the quantum state will not be lost, and it will still be held by the sender. Subsequently, the controller Charlie re-prepares another three-particle non-maximum entangled state to start a new round. When the predicted transmission is successful, the quantum state can be transmitted successfully within the butterfly network. If the receiver wants to receive the effective quantum state, the quantum measurements from Charlie are needed. Thirdly, when the transmission fails, Charlie does not need to integrate the basis to measure its own particles, by which quantum resources are saved. Charlie not only controls the effective transmission of quantum states, but also the usage of classical and quantum channels. Finally, the implementation of the quantum circuits, as well as a flow chart and safety analysis of our scheme, is proposed.


Cite This Article

X. Pan, X. Chen, G. Xu, H. Ahmad, T. Shang et al., "Controlled quantum network coding without loss of information," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 69, no.3, pp. 3967–3979, 2021.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • 1462


  • 799


  • 0


Share Link