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A Robust Video Watermarking Scheme with Squirrel Search Algorithm

Aman Bhaskar1, Chirag Sharma1, Khalid Mohiuddin2, Aman Singh1,*, Osman A. Nasr2, Mamdooh Alwetaishi3
1 Computer Science and Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Punjab, 144411, India
2 Department of Management Information Systems, King Khalid University, Guraiger, Abha, 62529, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Taif University, Taif, 21944, Saudi Arabia
* Corresponding Author: Aman Singh. Email:

Computers, Materials & Continua 2022, 71(2), 3069-3089.

Received 29 April 2021; Accepted 19 July 2021; Issue published 07 December 2021


Advancement in multimedia technology has resulted in protection against distortion, modification, and piracy. For implementing such protection, we have an existing technique called watermarking but obtaining desired distortion level with sufficient robustness is a challenging task for watermarking in multimedia applications. In the paper, we proposed a smart technique for video watermarking associating meta-heuristic algorithms along with an embedding method to gain an optimized efficiency. The main aim of the optimization algorithm is to obtain solutions with maximum robustness, and which should not exceed the set threshold of quality. To represent the accuracy of the proposed scheme, we employ a popular video watermarking technique (DCT domain) having frame selection and embedding method for watermarking. A squirrel search algorithm is chosen as a meta-heuristic algorithm that utilizes the stated fitness function. The results indicate that quality constraint is fulfilled, and the proposed technique gives improved robustness against different attacks with several quality thresholds. The proposed technique could be practically implemented in several multimedia applications such as the films industry, medical imagery, OOT platforms, etc.


Meta-heuristic algorithm; constrain optimization problem; fitness fiction; frame selection; squirrel search algorithm

Cite This Article

A. Bhaskar, C. Sharma, K. Mohiuddin, A. Singh, O. A. Nasr et al., "A robust video watermarking scheme with squirrel search algorithm," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 71, no.2, pp. 3069–3089, 2022.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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