Open Access


The Impact of Semi-Supervised Learning on the Performance of Intelligent Chatbot System

Sudan Prasad Uprety, Seung Ryul Jeong*
The Graduate School of Business Information Technology, Kookmin University, Seoul, 02707, Korea
* Corresponding Author: Seung Ryul Jeong. Email:

Computers, Materials & Continua 2022, 71(2), 3937-3952.

Received 29 August 2021; Accepted 29 September 2021; Issue published 07 December 2021


Artificial intelligent based dialog systems are getting attention from both business and academic communities. The key parts for such intelligent chatbot systems are domain classification, intent detection, and named entity recognition. Various supervised, unsupervised, and hybrid approaches are used to detect each field. Such intelligent systems, also called natural language understanding systems analyze user requests in sequential order: domain classification, intent, and entity recognition based on the semantic rules of the classified domain. This sequential approach propagates the downstream error; i.e., if the domain classification model fails to classify the domain, intent and entity recognition fail. Furthermore, training such intelligent system necessitates a large number of user-annotated datasets for each domain. This study proposes a single joint predictive deep neural network framework based on long short-term memory using only a small user-annotated dataset to address these issues. It investigates value added by incorporating unlabeled data from user chatting logs into multi-domain spoken language understanding systems. Systematic experimental analysis of the proposed joint frameworks, along with the semi-supervised multi-domain model, using open-source annotated and unannotated utterances shows robust improvement in the predictive performance of the proposed multi-domain intelligent chatbot over a base joint model and joint model based on adversarial learning.


Chatbot; dialog system; joint learning; LSTM; natural language understanding; semi-supervised learning

Cite This Article

S. Prasad Uprety and S. Ryul Jeong, "The impact of semi-supervised learning on the performance of intelligent chatbot system," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 71, no.2, pp. 3937–3952, 2022.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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