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Variational Bayesian Based IMM Robust GPS Navigation Filter

Dah-Jing Jwo1,*, Wei-Yeh Chang2

1 Department of Communications, Navigation and Control Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University Keelung, 202301, Taiwan
2 TDK Taiwan Corp., Yangmei, Taoyuan, 326021, Taiwan

* Corresponding Author: Dah-Jing Jwo. Email:

Computers, Materials & Continua 2022, 72(1), 755-773.


This paper investigates the navigational performance of Global Positioning System (GPS) using the variational Bayesian (VB) based robust filter with interacting multiple model (IMM) adaptation as the navigation processor. The performance of the state estimation for GPS navigation processing using the family of Kalman filter (KF) may be degraded due to the fact that in practical situations the statistics of measurement noise might change. In the proposed algorithm, the adaptivity is achieved by estimating the time-varying noise covariance matrices based on VB learning using the probabilistic approach, where in each update step, both the system state and time-varying measurement noise were recognized as random variables to be estimated. The estimation is iterated recursively at each time to approximate the real joint posterior distribution of state using the VB learning. One of the two major classical adaptive Kalman filter (AKF) approaches that have been proposed for tuning the noise covariance matrices is the multiple model adaptive estimate (MMAE). The IMM algorithm uses two or more filters to process in parallel, where each filter corresponds to a different dynamic or measurement model. The robust Huber's M-estimation-based extended Kalman filter (HEKF) algorithm integrates both merits of the Huber M-estimation methodology and EKF. The robustness is enhanced by modifying the filter update based on Huber's M-estimation method in the filtering framework. The proposed algorithm, referred to as the interactive multi-model based variational Bayesian HEKF (IMM-VBHEKF), provides an effective way for effectively handling the errors with time-varying and outlying property of non-Gaussian interference errors, such as the multipath effect. Illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the navigation performance enhancement in terms of adaptivity and robustness at the expense of acceptable additional execution time.


Cite This Article

D. Jwo and W. Chang, "Variational bayesian based imm robust gps navigation filter," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 72, no.1, pp. 755–773, 2022.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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