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Optimal FOPID Controllers for LFC Including Renewables by Bald Eagle Optimizer

Ahmed M. Agwa1, Mohamed Abdeen2, Shaaban M. Shaaban1,3,*

1 Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, Northern Border University, Arar, 1321, Saudi Arabia
2 Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, 11651, Egypt
3 Department of Engineering Basic Science, Faculty of Engineering, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Kom, 32511, Egypt

* Corresponding Author: Shaaban M. Shaaban. Email: email

Computers, Materials & Continua 2022, 73(3), 5525-5541.


In this study, a bald eagle optimizer (BEO) is used to get optimal parameters of the fractional-order proportional–integral–derivative (FOPID) controller for load frequency control (LFC). Since BEO takes only a very short time in finding the optimal solution, it is selected for designing the FOPID controller that improves the system stability and maintains the frequency within a satisfactory range at different loads. Simulations and demonstrations are carried out using MATLAB-R2020b. The performance of the BEO-FOPID controller is evaluated using a two-zone interlinked power system at different loads and under uncertainty of wind and solar energies. The robustness of the BEO-FOPID controller is examined by testing its performance under varying system time constants. The results obtained by the BEO-FOPID controller are compared with those obtained by BEO-PID and PID controllers based on recent metaheuristics optimization algorithms, namely the sine–cosine approach, Jaya approach, grey wolf optimizer, genetic algorithm, bacteria foraging optimizer, and equilibrium optimization algorithm. The results confirm that the BEO-FOPID controller obtains the finest result, with the lowest frequency deviation. The results also confirm that the BEO-FOPID controller is stable and robust at different loads, under varying system time constants, and under uncertainty of wind and solar energies.


Cite This Article

A. M. Agwa, M. Abdeen and S. M. Shaaban, "Optimal fopid controllers for lfc including renewables by bald eagle optimizer," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 73, no.3, pp. 5525–5541, 2022.

cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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