Open AccessOpen Access


Robust Fingerprint Construction Based on Multiple Path Loss Model (M-PLM) for Indoor Localization

Yun Fen Yong1,*, Chee Keong Tan1, Ian Kim Teck Tan2, Su Wei Tan1

1 School of Information Technology, Monash University Malaysia, Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia
2 School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences, Heriot-Watt University Malaysia, Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya, Malaysia

* Corresponding Author: Yun Fen Yong. Email:

Computers, Materials & Continua 2023, 74(1), 1801-1818.


A robust radio map is essential in implementing a fingerprint-based indoor positioning system (IPS). However, the offline site survey to manually construct the radio map is time-consuming and labour-intensive. Various interpolation techniques have been proposed to infer the virtual fingerprints to reduce the time and effort required for offline site surveys. This paper presents a novel fingerprint interpolator using a multi-path loss model (M-PLM) to create the virtual fingerprints from the collected sample data based on different signal paths from different access points (APs). Based on the historical signal data, the poor signal paths are identified using their standard deviations. The proposed method reduces the positioning errors by smoothing out the wireless signal fluctuations and stabilizing the signals for those poor signal paths. By considering multipath signal propagations from different APs, the inherent noise from these signal paths can be alleviated. Firstly, locations of the signal data with standard deviations higher than the threshold are identified. The new fingerprints are then generated at these locations based on the proposed M-PLM interpolation function to replace the old fingerprints. The proposed technique interpolates virtual fingerprints based on good signal paths with more stable signals to improve the positioning performance. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme enhances the positioning accuracy by up to 44% compared to the conventional interpolation techniques such as the Inverse Distance Weighting, Kriging, and single Path Loss Model. As a result, we can overcome the site survey problems for IPS by building an accurate radio map with more reliable signals to improve indoor positioning performance.


Cite This Article

Y. F. Yong, C. K. Tan, I. K. T. Tan and S. W. Tan, "Robust fingerprint construction based on multiple path loss model (m-plm) for indoor localization," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 74, no.1, pp. 1801–1818, 2023.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • 724


  • 385


  • 1


Share Link