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Optimizing Service Stipulation Uncertainty with Deep Reinforcement Learning for Internet Vehicle Systems

Zulqar Nain1, B. Shahana2, Shehzad Ashraf Chaudhry3, P. Viswanathan4, M.S. Mekala1, Sung Won Kim1,*

1 Department of Information and Communication Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan-si, Korea
2 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, KLEF, India
3 Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Istanbul Gelisim University, Istanbul, 34310, Turkey
4 School of Computer Science and Engineering, VIT University, Vellore, India

* Corresponding Author: Sung Won Kim. Email:

Computers, Materials & Continua 2023, 74(3), 5705-5721.


Fog computing brings computational services near the network edge to meet the latency constraints of cyber-physical System (CPS) applications. Edge devices enable limited computational capacity and energy availability that hamper end user performance. We designed a novel performance measurement index to gauge a device’s resource capacity. This examination addresses the offloading mechanism issues, where the end user (EU) offloads a part of its workload to a nearby edge server (ES). Sometimes, the ES further offloads the workload to another ES or cloud server to achieve reliable performance because of limited resources (such as storage and computation). The manuscript aims to reduce the service offloading rate by selecting a potential device or server to accomplish a low average latency and service completion time to meet the deadline constraints of sub-divided services. In this regard, an adaptive online status predictive model design is significant for prognosticating the asset requirement of arrived services to make float decisions. Consequently, the development of a reinforcement learning-based flexible x-scheduling (RFXS) approach resolves the service offloading issues, where x = service/resource for producing the low latency and high performance of the network. Our approach to the theoretical bound and computational complexity is derived by formulating the system efficiency. A quadratic restraint mechanism is employed to formulate the service optimization issue according to a set of measurements, as well as the behavioural association rate and adulation factor. Our system managed an average 0.89% of the service offloading rate, with 39 of delay over complex scenarios (using three servers with a 50% service arrival rate). The simulation outcomes confirm that the proposed scheme attained a low offloading uncertainty, and is suitable for simulating heterogeneous CPS frameworks.


Cite This Article

Z. Nain, B. Shahana, S. A. Chaudhry, P. Viswanathan, M. Mekala et al., "Optimizing service stipulation uncertainty with deep reinforcement learning for internet vehicle systems," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 74, no.3, pp. 5705–5721, 2023.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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