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MI-STEG: A Medical Image Steganalysis Framework Based on Ensemble Deep Learning

Rukiye Karakis1,2,*

1 Department of Software Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Sivas Cumhuriyet University, 58140, Turkey
2 DEEPBRAIN: Neuro-Imaging and Artificial Intelligence Research Group, Sivas Cumhuriyet University, 58140, Turkey

* Corresponding Author: Rukiye Karakis. Email: email

Computers, Materials & Continua 2023, 74(3), 4649-4666.


Medical image steganography aims to increase data security by concealing patient-personal information as well as diagnostic and therapeutic data in the spatial or frequency domain of radiological images. On the other hand, the discipline of image steganalysis generally provides a classification based on whether an image has hidden data or not. Inspired by previous studies on image steganalysis, this study proposes a deep ensemble learning model for medical image steganalysis to detect malicious hidden data in medical images and develop medical image steganography methods aimed at securing personal information. With this purpose in mind, a dataset containing brain Magnetic Resonance (MR) images of healthy individuals and epileptic patients was built. Spatial Version of the Universal Wavelet Relative Distortion (S-UNIWARD), Highly Undetectable Stego (HUGO), and Minimizing the Power of Optimal Detector (MIPOD) techniques used in spatial image steganalysis were adapted to the problem, and various payloads of confidential data were hidden in medical images. The architectures of medical image steganalysis networks were transferred separately from eleven Dense Convolutional Network (DenseNet), Residual Neural Network (ResNet), and Inception-based models. The steganalysis outputs of these networks were determined by assembling models separately for each spatial embedding method with different payload ratios. The study demonstrated the success of pre-trained ResNet, DenseNet, and Inception models in the cover-stego mismatch scenario for each hiding technique with different payloads. Due to the high detection accuracy achieved, the proposed model has the potential to lead to the development of novel medical image steganography algorithms that existing deep learning-based steganalysis methods cannot detect. The experiments and the evaluations clearly proved this attempt.


Cite This Article

R. Karakis, "Mi-steg: a medical image steganalysis framework based on ensemble deep learning," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 74, no.3, pp. 4649–4666, 2023.

cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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