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Efficient Optimal Routing Algorithm Based on Reward and Penalty for Mobile Adhoc Networks

Anubha1, Ravneet Preet Singh Bedi2, Arfat Ahmad Khan3,*, Mohd Anul Haq4, Ahmad Alhussen5, Zamil S. Alzamil4

1 Department of Computer Applications, I. K. G. Punjab Technical University, Kapurthala, 144601, Punjab, India
2 Research and Development, I. K. G. Punjab Technical University, Kapurthala, 144604, Punjab, India
3 Department of Computer Science, College of Computing, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002, Thailand
4 Department of Computer Science, College of Computer and Information Sciences, Majmaah University, Al-Majmaah, 11952, Saudi Arabia
5 Department of Computer Engineering, College of Computer and Information Sciences, Majmaah University, Al-Majmaah, 11952, Saudi Arabia

* Corresponding Author: Arfat Ahmad Khan. Email: email

Computers, Materials & Continua 2023, 75(1), 1331-1351.


Mobile adhoc networks have grown in prominence in recent years, and they are now utilized in a broader range of applications. The main challenges are related to routing techniques that are generally employed in them. Mobile Adhoc system management, on the other hand, requires further testing and improvements in terms of security. Traditional routing protocols, such as Adhoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), employ the hop count to calculate the distance between two nodes. The main aim of this research work is to determine the optimum method for sending packets while also extending life time of the network. It is achieved by changing the residual energy of each network node. Also, in this paper, various algorithms for optimal routing based on parameters like energy, distance, mobility, and the pheromone value are proposed. Moreover, an approach based on a reward and penalty system is given in this paper to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed algorithms under the impact of parameters. The simulation results unveil that the reward penalty-based approach is quite effective for the selection of an optimal path for routing when the algorithms are implemented under the parameters of interest, which helps in achieving less packet drop and energy consumption of the nodes along with enhancing the network efficiency.


Cite This Article

. Anubha, R. P. S. Bedi, A. A. Khan, M. A. Haq, A. Alhussen et al., "Efficient optimal routing algorithm based on reward and penalty for mobile adhoc networks," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 75, no.1, pp. 1331–1351, 2023.

cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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