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Facial Expression Recognition Model Depending on Optimized Support Vector Machine

Amel Ali Alhussan1, Fatma M. Talaat2, El-Sayed M. El-kenawy3, Abdelaziz A. Abdelhamid4,5, Abdelhameed Ibrahim6, Doaa Sami Khafaga1,*, Mona Alnaggar7

1 Department of Computer Sciences, College of Computer and Information Sciences, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, P.O. Box 84428, Riyadh, 11671, Saudi Arabia
2 Machine Learning & Information Retrieval Department, Faculty of Artificial Intelligence, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh, 33516, Egypt
3 Department of Communications and Electronics, Delta Higher Institute of Engineering and Technology, Mansoura, 35111, Egypt
4 Department of Computer Science, College of Computing and Information Technology, Shaqra University, 11961, Saudi Arabia
5 Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Computer and Information Sciences, Ain Shams University, Cairo, 11566, Egypt
6 Computer Engineering and Control Systems Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura, 35516, Egypt
7 Robotics and Intelligent Machines Department, Faculty of Artificial Intelligence, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh, 33516, Egypt

* Corresponding Author: Doaa Sami Khafaga. Email:

(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Optimization for Artificial Intelligence Application)

Computers, Materials & Continua 2023, 76(1), 499-515.


In computer vision, emotion recognition using facial expression images is considered an important research issue. Deep learning advances in recent years have aided in attaining improved results in this issue. According to recent studies, multiple facial expressions may be included in facial photographs representing a particular type of emotion. It is feasible and useful to convert face photos into collections of visual words and carry out global expression recognition. The main contribution of this paper is to propose a facial expression recognition model (FERM) depending on an optimized Support Vector Machine (SVM). To test the performance of the proposed model (FERM), AffectNet is used. AffectNet uses 1250 emotion-related keywords in six different languages to search three major search engines and get over 1,000,000 facial photos online. The FERM is composed of three main phases: (i) the Data preparation phase, (ii) Applying grid search for optimization, and (iii) the categorization phase. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is used to categorize the data into eight labels (neutral, happy, sad, surprised, fear, disgust, angry, and contempt). Due to using LDA, the performance of categorization via SVM has been obviously enhanced. Grid search is used to find the optimal values for hyperparameters of SVM (C and gamma). The proposed optimized SVM algorithm has achieved an accuracy of 99% and a 98% F1 score.


Cite This Article

A. A. Alhussan, F. M. Talaat, E. M. El-kenawy, A. A. Abdelhamid, A. Ibrahim et al., "Facial expression recognition model depending on optimized support vector machine," Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 76, no.1, pp. 499–515, 2023.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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