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Securing Transmitted Color Images Using Zero Watermarking and Advanced Encryption Standard on Raspberry Pi

Doaa Sami Khafaga1, Sarah M. Alhammad1,*, Amal Magdi2, Osama ElKomy2, Nabil A. Lashin2, Khalid M. Hosny2

1 Department of Computer Sciences, College of Computer and Information Sciences, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, P. O. Box 84428, Riyadh, 11671, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Information Technology, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 44519, Egypt

* Corresponding Author: Sarah M. Alhammad. Email:

Computer Systems Science and Engineering 2023, 47(2), 1967-1986.


Image authentication techniques have recently received a lot of attention for protecting images against unauthorized access. Due to the wide use of the Internet nowadays, the need to ensure data integrity and authentication increases. Many techniques, such as watermarking and encryption, are used for securing images transmitted via the Internet. The majority of watermarking systems are PC-based, but they are not very portable. Hardware-based watermarking methods need to be developed to accommodate real-time applications and provide portability. This paper presents hybrid data security techniques using a zero watermarking method to provide copyright protection for the transmitted color images using multi-channel orthogonal Legendre Fourier moments of fractional orders (MFrLFMs) and the advanced encryption standard (AES) algorithm on a low-cost Raspberry Pi. In order to increase embedding robustness, the watermark picture is scrambled using the Arnold method. Zero watermarking is implemented on the Raspberry Pi to produce a real-time ownership verification key. Before sending the ownership verification key and the original image to the monitoring station, we can encrypt the transmitted data with AES for additional security and hide any viewable information. The receiver next verifies the received image’s integrity to confirm its authenticity and that it has not been tampered with. We assessed the suggested algorithm’s resistance to many attacks. The suggested algorithm provides a reasonable degree of robustness while still being perceptible. The proposed method provides improved bit error rate (BER) and normalized correlation (NC) values compared to previous zero watermarking approaches. AES performance analysis is performed to demonstrate its effectiveness. Using a 256 × 256 image size, it takes only 2 s to apply the zero-watermark algorithm on the Raspberry Pi.


Cite This Article

D. S. Khafaga, S. M. Alhammad, A. Magdi, O. ElKomy, N. A. Lashin et al., "Securing transmitted color images using zero watermarking and advanced encryption standard on raspberry pi," Computer Systems Science and Engineering, vol. 47, no.2, pp. 1967–1986, 2023.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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