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Contourlet and Gould Transforms for Hybrid Image Watermarking in RGB Color Images

Reena Thomas1,*, M. Sucharitha2

1 Department of ECE, Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Kumaracoil, 629180, India
2 Department of ECE, Malla Reddy College of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad, 500001, India

* Corresponding Author: Reena Thomas. Email:

Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing 2022, 33(2), 879-889.


The major intention of this work is to introduce a novel hybrid image watermarking technique for RGB color images. This hybrid watermarking algorithm uses two transforms such as Contourlet and Gould transform. The Contourlet transform is used as first stage while the Gould transform is used as second stage. In the watermark embedding phase, the R, G and B channels are transformed using Contourlet transform. The bandpass directional sub band coefficients of Contourlet transformed image are then divided into sub-blocks. The sub-blocks are then transformed using Gould transform and the watermark information is embedded on the initial coefficients of each sub-blocks. After the embedding of watermark, inverse of Gould and Contourlet are taken to obtain the watermarked image. The reverse operation is performed to extract the watermark. Results obtained from attack-based experimentation for checking robustness implicate the superiority of this method in comparison with conventional methods. Better values are obtained for Embedding Rate, Structural Similarity Index Metric (SSIM) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR).


Cite This Article

R. Thomas and M. Sucharitha, "Contourlet and gould transforms for hybrid image watermarking in rgb color images," Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, vol. 33, no.2, pp. 879–889, 2022.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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