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Energy Efficient Green Routing for UAVs Ad-Hoc Network

M. Muthukumar1, Rajasekar Rangasamy2, Irshad Hussain3,4, Salman A. AlQahtani4,*

1 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Sree Sowdambika College of Engineering, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Computer Science and Engineering-AI & ML, School of Engineering, Malla Reddy University, Hyderabad, India
3 Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, 25000, Peshawar, Pakistan
4 Department of Computer Engineering, College of Computer and Information Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 51178, Riyadh, 11543, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

* Corresponding Author: Salman A. AlQahtani. Email: email

Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing 2023, 37(1), 1111-1127.


The purpose of this article is to propose Stability-based Energy-Efficient Link-State Hybrid Routing (S-ELHR), a low latency routing protocol that aims to provide a stable mechanism for routing in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). The S-ELHR protocol selects a number of network nodes to create a Connected Dominating Set (CDS) using a parameter known as the Stability Metric (SM). The SM considers the node’s energy usage, connectivity time, and node’s degree. Only the highest SM nodes are chosen to form CDS. Each node declares a Willingness to indicate that it is prepared to serve as a relay for its neighbors, by employing its own energy state. S-ELHR is a hybrid protocol that stores only partial topological information and routing tables on CDS nodes. Instead of relying on the routing information at each intermediary node, it uses source routing, in which a route is generated on-demand, and data packets contain the addresses of the nodes the packet will transit. A route recovery technique is additionally utilized, which first locates a new route to the destination before forwarding packets along it. Through simulation for various network sizes and mobility speeds, the efficiency of S-ELHR is shown. The findings demonstrate that S-ELHR performs better than Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) and Energy Enhanced OLSR (EE-OLSR) in terms of packet delivery ratio, end-to-end delay, and energy consumption.


Cite This Article

APA Style
Muthukumar, M., Rangasamy, R., Hussain, I., AlQahtani, S.A. (2023). Energy efficient green routing for uavs ad-hoc network. Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, 37(1), 1111-1127.
Vancouver Style
Muthukumar M, Rangasamy R, Hussain I, AlQahtani SA. Energy efficient green routing for uavs ad-hoc network. Intell Automat Soft Comput . 2023;37(1):1111-1127
IEEE Style
M. Muthukumar, R. Rangasamy, I. Hussain, and S.A. AlQahtani "Energy Efficient Green Routing for UAVs Ad-Hoc Network," Intell. Automat. Soft Comput. , vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 1111-1127. 2023.

cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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