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A Survey on Adversarial Examples in Deep Learning

Kai Chen1,*, Haoqi Zhu2, Leiming Yan1, Jinwei Wang1

1 School of Computer & Software, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing, 210044, China
2 School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing, 210044, China

* Corresponding Author: Kai Chen. Email:

Journal on Big Data 2020, 2(2), 71-84.


Adversarial examples are hot topics in the field of security in deep learning. The feature, generation methods, attack and defense methods of the adversarial examples are focuses of the current research on adversarial examples. This article explains the key technologies and theories of adversarial examples from the concept of adversarial examples, the occurrences of the adversarial examples, the attacking methods of adversarial examples. This article lists the possible reasons for the adversarial examples. This article also analyzes several typical generation methods of adversarial examples in detail: Limited-memory BFGS (L-BFGS), Fast Gradient Sign Method (FGSM), Basic Iterative Method (BIM), Iterative Least-likely Class Method (LLC), etc. Furthermore, in the perspective of the attack methods and reasons of the adversarial examples, the main defense techniques for the adversarial examples are listed: preprocessing, regularization and adversarial training method, distillation method, etc., which application scenarios and deficiencies of different defense measures are pointed out. This article further discusses the application of adversarial examples which currently is mainly used in adversarial evaluation and adversarial training. Finally, the overall research direction of the adversarial examples is prospected to completely solve the adversarial attack problem. There are still a lot of practical and theoretical problems that need to be solved. Finding out the characteristics of the adversarial examples, giving a mathematical description of its practical application prospects, exploring the universal method of adversarial example generation and the generation mechanism of the adversarial examples are the main research directions of the adversarial examples in the future.


Cite This Article

K. Chen, H. Zhu, L. Yan and J. Wang, "A survey on adversarial examples in deep learning," Journal on Big Data, vol. 2, no.2, pp. 71–84, 2020.


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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