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Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Treated Kenaf Bast Pulp Fiber Reinforcement in Epoxy Composite

N. A. Sri Aprilia1, M. S. Nurul Atiqah2, Zhari Ismail3, C. Y. Loo2, Chaturbhuj K. Saurabh2, Rudi Dungani4, Abdul Khalil H.P.S2*

Department of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Faculty of Syiah Kuala University, Aceh 23111, Indonesia
School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Gelugor, Penang, Malaysia
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Gelugor, Penang, Malaysia
School of Life Sciences and Technology, Gandung Labtex XI, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jl. Ganesha No.10, Bandung, Indonesia

*Corresponding author:

Journal of Renewable Materials 2017, 5(5), 380-387.


Due to environmental concerns, green composites have become a highly researched material. In the present study, kenaf fiber was used as reinforcement in epoxy-based composite with weight fraction ranges from 0, 5, 10, and 15% (w/w of resin). The ratio of epoxy to hardener was 65:32.5. Prior to incorporation, kenaf bast fiber underwent Soda-AQ pulping followed by total chlorine-free bleaching (OAZP sequence). The obtained pulp was then subjected to supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) treatment. It was observed that epoxy composite with 10% of fiber loading demonstrated the highest mechanical properties with a tensile strength of 64 MPa, tensile modulus of 1.64 GPa, flexural strength of 83 MPa, and flexural modulus of elasticity of 2.94 GPa. The observed improvement was due to the SCE process which enhanced the wetting process of fiber. However, at 15% mechanical properties decreased due to void formation since fiber could not be dispersed properly in epoxy matrix at high concentration.


Cite This Article

A., N., S., M., Ismail, Z., Loo, C. Y., Saurabh, C. K. et al. (2017). Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Treated Kenaf Bast Pulp Fiber Reinforcement in Epoxy Composite. Journal of Renewable Materials, 5(5), 380–387.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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