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Nelfinavir and Ritonavir Kill Bladder Cancer Cells Synergistically by Inducing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

Akinori Sato, Takako Asano, Kazuki Okubo, Makoto Isono, Tomohiko Asano

Department of Urology, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan

Oncology Research 2018, 26(2), 323-332. https://doi.org/10.3727/096504017X14957929842972

Abstract

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor nelfinavir acts against malignancies by inducing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir, on the other hand, not only induces ER stress but also inhibits P-glycoprotein’s pump activity and thereby enhances the effects of its substrate drugs. We therefore postulated that ritonavir in combination with nelfinavir would kill bladder cancer cells effectively by inducing ER stress cooperatively and also enhancing nelfinavir’s effect. Nelfinavir was shown to be a P-glycoprotein substrate, and the combination of nelfinavir and ritonavir inhibited bladder cancer cell growth synergistically. It also suppressed colony formation significantly. The combination significantly increased the number of cells in the sub-G1 fraction and also the number of annexin V+ cells, confirming robust apoptosis induction. The combination induced ER stress synergistically, as evidenced by the increased expression of glucose-regulated protein 78, ER-resident protein 44, and endoplasmic oxidoreductin-1-like protein. It also increased the expression of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor AMP-activated protein kinase and caused dephosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein, demonstrating that the combination also inhibited the mTOR pathway. We also found that the combination enhanced histone acetylation synergistically by decreasing the expression of HDACs 1, 3, and 6.

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APA Style
Sato, A., Asano, T., Okubo, K., Isono, M., Asano, T. (2018). Nelfinavir and ritonavir kill bladder cancer cells synergistically by inducing endoplasmic reticulum stress. Oncology Research, 26(2), 323-332. https://doi.org/10.3727/096504017X14957929842972
Vancouver Style
Sato A, Asano T, Okubo K, Isono M, Asano T. Nelfinavir and ritonavir kill bladder cancer cells synergistically by inducing endoplasmic reticulum stress. Oncol Res. 2018;26(2):323-332 https://doi.org/10.3727/096504017X14957929842972
IEEE Style
A. Sato, T. Asano, K. Okubo, M. Isono, and T. Asano "Nelfinavir and Ritonavir Kill Bladder Cancer Cells Synergistically by Inducing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress," Oncol. Res., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 323-332. 2018. https://doi.org/10.3727/096504017X14957929842972



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