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Changes in DNA Damage Repair Gene Expression and Cell Cycle Gene Expression Do Not Explain Radioresistance in Tamoxifen-Resistant Breast Cancer

Annemarie E. M. Post*†, Johan Bussink*, Fred C. G. J. Sweep, Paul N. Span*

* Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Radiotherapy and OncoImmunology Laboratory, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
† Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

Oncology Research 2020, 28(1), 33-40. https://doi.org/10.3727/096504019X15555794826018

Abstract

Tamoxifen-induced radioresistance, reported in vitro, might pose a problem for patients who receive neoadjuvant tamoxifen treatment and subsequently receive radiotherapy after surgery. Previous studies suggested that DNA damage repair or cell cycle genes are involved, and could therefore be targeted to preclude the occurrence of cross-resistance. We aimed to characterize the observed cross-resistance by investigating gene expression of DNA damage repair genes and cell cycle genes in estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells that were cultured to tamoxifen resistance. RNA sequencing was performed, and expression of genes characteristic for several DNA damage repair pathways was investigated, as well as expression of genes involved in different phases of the cell cycle. The association of differentially expressed genes with outcome after radiotherapy was assessed in silico in a large breast cancer cohort. None of the DNA damage repair pathways showed differential gene expression in tamoxifen-resistant cells compared to wild-type cells. Two DNA damage repair genes were more than two times upregulated (NEIL1 and EME2), and three DNA damage repair genes were more than two times downregulated (PCNA, BRIP1, and BARD1). However, these were not associated with outcome after radiotherapy in the TCGA breast cancer cohort. Genes involved in G1, G1/S, G2, and G2/M phases were lower expressed in tamoxifen-resistant cells compared to wild-type cells. Individual genes that were more than two times upregulated (MAPK13) or downregulated (E2F2, CKS2, GINS2, PCNA, MCM5, and EIF5A2) were not associated with response to radiotherapy in the patient cohort investigated. We assessed the expression of DNA damage repair genes and cell cycle genes in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells. Though several genes in both pathways were differentially expressed, these could not explain the cross-resistance for irradiation in these cells, since no association to response to radiotherapy in the TCGA breast cancer cohort was found.

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APA Style
Post, A.E.M., Bussink, J., Sweep, F.C.G.J., Span, P.N. (2020). Changes in DNA damage repair gene expression and cell cycle gene expression do not explain radioresistance in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer. Oncology Research, 28(1), 33-40. https://doi.org/10.3727/096504019X15555794826018
Vancouver Style
Post AEM, Bussink J, Sweep FCGJ, Span PN. Changes in DNA damage repair gene expression and cell cycle gene expression do not explain radioresistance in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer. Oncol Res. 2020;28(1):33-40 https://doi.org/10.3727/096504019X15555794826018
IEEE Style
A.E.M. Post, J. Bussink, F.C.G.J. Sweep, and P.N. Span "Changes in DNA Damage Repair Gene Expression and Cell Cycle Gene Expression Do Not Explain Radioresistance in Tamoxifen-Resistant Breast Cancer," Oncol. Res., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 33-40. 2020. https://doi.org/10.3727/096504019X15555794826018



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