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  • Open Access


    Strategic Estimation of Kinetic Parameters in VGO Cracking

    Praveen Ch.1, Shishir Sinha1,2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.9, No.1, pp. 41-50, 2009, DOI:10.3970/cmc.2009.009.041

    Abstract Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit plays most important role in the economy of a modern refinery that it is use for value addition to the refinery products. Because of the importance of FCC unit in refining, considerable effort has been done by scientists till now on the modelling of this unit for better understanding and improved productivity. To model a FCC unit we have to know the unknown kinetic parameters of the governing equations.
    The basic aim of this paper is to prove that MATLABTM can be used as a tool to find unknown kinetic parameters of governing equations for… More >

  • Open Access


    Cracking and Creep Role in Displacements at Constant Load: Concrete Solids in Compression

    E. Ferretti1, A. Di Leo1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.7, No.2, pp. 59-80, 2008, DOI:10.3970/cmc.2008.007.059

    Abstract The main assumption on the basis of the identifying model of the effective law, developed by the Author, is the impossibility of considering the specimen as a continuum, when an identifying procedure from load-displacement to stress-strain in uniaxial compression is attempted. Actually, a failure mechanism with propagation of a macro-crack was found to activate from the very beginning of the uniaxial compression test forth. This leads to considering the acquired displacements as composed by two quotes: one constitutive, due to the material strain, and one of crack opening. Since the ratio between these two quotes is not constant during the… More >

  • Open Access


    Characterization of Loading Rate Effects on the Interactions between Crack Growth and Inclusions in Cementitious Material

    Shuai Zhou3,4, Xiaoying Zhuang1,2,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.57, No.3, pp. 417-446, 2018, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2018.01742

    Abstract The microcapsule-enabled cementitious material is an appealing building material and it has been attracting increasing research interest. By considering microcapsules as dissimilar inclusions in the material, this paper employs the discrete element method (DEM) to study the effects of loading rates on the fracturing behavior of cementitious specimens containing the inclusion and the crack. The numerical model was first developed and validated based on experimental results. It is then used to systematically study the initiation, the propagation and the coalescence of cracks in inclusion-enabled cementitious materials. The study reveals that the crack propagation speed, the first crack initiation stress, the… More >

  • Open Access


    Modeling of Hydro-Viscoelastic State of Deformable and Saturated Product During Convective Drying

    R. Lamloumi1,2, L. Hassini1, G. L. Lecomte-Nana2, M. A. Elcafsi1, D. Smith2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.43, No.3, pp. 137-152, 2014, DOI:10.3970/cmc.2014.043.137

    Abstract A mathematical model was developed to simulate in 2D the spatiotemporal evolution of the moisture content, the temperature and the mechanical stress within a deformable and saturated product during convective drying. A comprehensive hydro-thermal model had been merged with a Maxwell model with two branches, assuming a viscoelastic material, a plane deformation and an isotropic hydric-shrinkage of the sample. A long sample of clay mixture with a square section was chosen as an application case. The transport and equilibrium properties of the product required for the modeling were determined from previous experiments which were independent of the drying trials. In… More >

  • Open Access


    Analysis on Flexural Behavior of UHPFRC Beams based on Tensile Stress-Crack Opening Relationship

    Jung Soo Lee1, Sung Yong Park2, Keunhee Cho2, Jeong-Rae Cho2, Seung Hee Kwon1,3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.41, No.2, pp. 85-110, 2014, DOI:10.3970/cmc.2014.041.085

    Abstract The objective of this study is to investigate the differences between the tensile stress-crack opening relationships of the small size notched beam and the real size beam which were made of two ultra-high performance fiber reinforced concretes (UHPFRCs) having different volume fractions and lengths of fibers. The stress-crack opening relationships of two UHPFRCs were first obtained from the inverse analysis for the small size notched beam tests. In addition, the three types of real size beams were manufactured for each mix: (1) plain beam, (2) beam with tensile reinforcement, and (3) beam with both tensile and compressive reinforcements. The flexural… More >

  • Open Access


    A Higher Order Synergistic Damage Model for Prediction of Stiffness Changes due to Ply Cracking in Composite Laminates

    Chandra Veer Singh1,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.34, No.3, pp. 227-249, 2013, DOI:10.3970/cmc.2013.034.227

    Abstract A non-linear damage model is developed for the prediction of stiffness degradation in composite laminates due to transverse matrix cracking. The model follows the framework of a recently developed synergistic damage mechanics (SDM) approach which combines the strengths of micro-damage mechanics and continuum damage mechanics (CDM) through the so-called constraint parameters. A common limitation of the current CDM and SDM models has been the tendency to over-predict stiffness changes at high crack densities due to linearity inherent in their stiffness-damage relationships. The present paper extends this SDM approach by including higher order damage terms in the characterization of ply cracking… More >

  • Open Access


    Numerical Study of PVB Laminated Windshield Cracking Upon Human Head Impact

    Jun Xu1,2, Yibing Li1, Xi Chen2,3, Yuan Yan2,3, Dongyun Ge4,1, Bohan Liu1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.18, No.2, pp. 183-212, 2010, DOI:10.3970/cmc.2010.018.183

    Abstract The crack pattern in a PVB laminated windshield upon head impact is of considerable interest because it contains important information on energy mitigation, pedestrian protection, and accident reconstruction. We carry out a systematic numerical study based on the extended finite element method (XFEM), to investigate the effects of various material and system variables, including the impact speed, effective head mass, PVB interlayer material thickness and property, windshield curvature, aspect ratio and size, boundary constraint, impact angle and off-center impact, on the parameters characterizing the resulting crack pattern, i.e. the crack length, crack angle and circumferential crack shape. General relations bridging… More >

  • Open Access


    Modeling Intergranular Crack Propagation in Polycrystalline Materials

    M.A.Arafin1, J.A.Szpunar2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.14, No.2, pp. 125-140, 2009, DOI:10.3970/cmc.2009.014.125

    Abstract A novel microstructure, texture and grain boundary character based model has been proposed to simulate the intergranular crack propagation behavior in textured polycrystalline materials. The model utilizes the Voronoi algorithm and Monte Carlo simulations to construct the microstructure with desired grain shape factor, takes the texture description of the materials to assign the orientations of the grains, evaluates the grain boundary character based on the misorientation angle - axis calculated from the orientations of the neighboring grains, and takes into account the inclination of grain boundaries with respect to the external stress direction. Markov Chain theory has been applied to… More >

  • Open Access


    A New Method of Controlling Shrinkage Cracking in Repaired Concrete Structures Using an Interface Layer of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Cement Mortar

    Shen Yubin1, Xie Huicai1,2, Den Wei1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.3, No.2, pp. 49-54, 2006, DOI:10.3970/cmc.2006.003.049

    Abstract Bonding an overlay of new concrete onto the damaged concrete is a usual repair method. Because of the different shrinkage rate of the new and old concrete, restrained shrinkage cracks will appear in the new concrete. The cracks will reduce durability and strength of the repaired structure. A new repair method using an interface layer of carbon fiber reinforced cement mortar between new and old concrete was developed in this paper. The new method was found to be very effective in reducing shrinkage cracking of repaired beams and slabs. Comparing with normal repaired beams, the maximum observed width of the… More >

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