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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Optimizing Two-Phase Flow Heat Transfer: DCS Hybrid Modeling and Automation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Boilers

    Ming Yan1, Caijiang Lu2,*, Pan Shi1,*, Meiling Zhang3, Jiawei Zhang1, Liang Wang1

    Frontiers in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol.22, No.2, pp. 615-631, 2024, DOI:10.32604/fhmt.2024.048333

    Abstract In response to escalating challenges in energy conservation and emission reduction, this study delves into the complexities of heat transfer in two-phase flows and adjustments to combustion processes within coal-fired boilers. Utilizing a fusion of hybrid modeling and automation technologies, we develop soft measurement models for key combustion parameters, such as the net calorific value of coal, flue gas oxygen content, and fly ash carbon content, within the Distributed Control System (DCS). Validated with performance test data, these models exhibit controlled root mean square error (RMSE) and maximum absolute error (MAXE) values, both within the… More > Graphic Abstract

    Optimizing Two-Phase Flow Heat Transfer: DCS Hybrid Modeling and Automation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Boilers

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Prediction of the Pore-Pressure Built-Up and Temperature of Fire-Loaded Concrete with Pix2Pix

    Xueya Wang1, Yiming Zhang2,3,*, Qi Liu4, Huanran Wang1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.2, pp. 2907-2922, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.050736

    Abstract Concrete subjected to fire loads is susceptible to explosive spalling, which can lead to the exposure of reinforcing steel bars to the fire, substantially jeopardizing the structural safety and stability. The spalling of fire-loaded concrete is closely related to the evolution of pore pressure and temperature. Conventional analytical methods involve the resolution of complex, strongly coupled multifield equations, necessitating significant computational efforts. To rapidly and accurately obtain the distributions of pore-pressure and temperature, the Pix2Pix model is adopted in this work, which is celebrated for its capabilities in image generation. The open-source dataset used herein… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Comparative Analysis of Reaction to Fire and Flammability of Hemp Shives Insulation Boards with Incorporated Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials

    Inga Zotova1,*, Edgars Kirilovs1, Laura Ziemele2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.12, No.3, pp. 603-613, 2024, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2024.047607

    Abstract Nowadays buildings contain innovative materials, materials from local resources, production surpluses and rapidly renewable natural resources. Phase Change Materials (PCM) are one such group of novel materials which reduce building energy consumption. With the wider availability of microencapsulated PCM, there is an opportunity to develop a new type of insulating materials, combinate PCM with traditional insulation materials for latent heat energy storage. These materials are typically flammable and are located on the interior wall finishing yet there has been no detailed assessment of their fire performance. In this research work prototypes of low-density insulating boards… More > Graphic Abstract

    Comparative Analysis of Reaction to Fire and Flammability of Hemp Shives Insulation Boards with Incorporated Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Investigating Load Regulation Characteristics of a Wind-PV-Coal Storage Multi-Power Generation System

    Zhongping Liu1, Enhui Sun2,*, Jiahao Shi2, Lei Zhang2, Qi Wang1, Jiali Dong1

    Energy Engineering, Vol.121, No.4, pp. 913-932, 2024, DOI:10.32604/ee.2023.043973

    Abstract There is a growing need to explore the potential of coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) to enhance the utilization rate of wind power (wind) and photovoltaic power (PV) in the green energy field. This study developed a load regulation model for a multi-power generation system comprising wind, PV, and coal energy storage using real-world data. The power supply process was divided into eight fundamental load regulation scenarios, elucidating the influence of each scenario on load regulation. Within the framework of the multi-power generation system with the wind (50 MW) and PV (50 MW) alongside a CFPP… More > Graphic Abstract

    Investigating Load Regulation Characteristics of a Wind-PV-Coal Storage Multi-Power Generation System

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Model for Intelligent Fire Intensity Detection Algorithm with Decision Making in Low-Power Devices

    Emmanuel Lule1,2,*, Chomora Mikeka3, Alexander Ngenzi4, Didacienne Mukanyiligira5

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.38, No.1, pp. 57-81, 2023, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2023.037988

    Abstract Local markets in East Africa have been destroyed by raging fires, leading to the loss of life and property in the nearby communities. Electrical circuits, arson, and neglected charcoal stoves are the major causes of these fires. Previous methods, i.e., satellites, are expensive to maintain and cause unnecessary delays. Also, unit-smoke detectors are highly prone to false alerts. In this paper, an Interval Type-2 TSK fuzzy model for an intelligent lightweight fire intensity detection algorithm with decision-making in low-power devices is proposed using a sparse inference rules approach. A free open–source MATLAB/Simulink fuzzy toolbox integrated… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Flame Retardant Material Based on Cellulose Scaffold Mineralized by Calcium Carbonate

    Jinshuo Wang, Lida Xing, Fulong Zhang, Chuanfu Liu*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.12, No.1, pp. 89-102, 2024, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.029057

    Abstract Wood-based functional materials have developed rapidly. But the flammability significantly limits its further application. To improve the flame retardancy, the balsa wood was delignified by NaClO2 solution to create a cellulose scaffold, and then alternately immersed in CaCl2 ethanol solution and NaHCO3 aqueous solution under vacuum. The high porosity and wettability resulting from delignification benefited the following mineralization process, changing the thermal properties of balsa wood significantly. The organic-inorganic wood composite showed abundant CaCO3 spherical particles under scanning electron microscopy. The peak of the heat release rate of delignified balsa-CaCO3 was reduced by 33% compared to the native More > Graphic Abstract

    Flame Retardant Material Based on Cellulose Scaffold Mineralized by Calcium Carbonate

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Models to Simulate Effective Coverage of Fire Station Based on Real-Time Travel Times

    Sicheng Zhu, Dingli Liu*, Weijun Liu, Ying Li, Tian Zhou

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.139, No.1, pp. 483-513, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.044809

    Abstract In recent years, frequent fire disasters have led to enormous damage in China. Effective firefighting rescues can minimize the losses caused by fires. During the rescue processes, the travel time of fire trucks can be severely affected by traffic conditions, changing the effective coverage of fire stations. However, it is still challenging to determine the effective coverage of fire stations considering dynamic traffic conditions. This paper addresses this issue by combining the traveling time calculation model with the effective coverage simulation model. In addition, it proposes a new index of total effective coverage area (TECA)… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Convolutional Neural Network Model for Fire Detection in Real-Time Environment

    Abdul Rehman, Dongsun Kim*, Anand Paul

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.77, No.2, pp. 2289-2307, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.036435

    Abstract Disasters such as conflagration, toxic smoke, harmful gas or chemical leakage, and many other catastrophes in the industrial environment caused by hazardous distance from the peril are frequent. The calamities are causing massive fiscal and human life casualties. However, Wireless Sensors Network-based adroit monitoring and early warning of these dangerous incidents will hamper fiscal and social fiasco. The authors have proposed an early fire detection system uses machine and/or deep learning algorithms. The article presents an Intelligent Industrial Monitoring System (IIMS) and introduces an Industrial Smart Social Agent (ISSA) in the Industrial SIoT (ISIoT) paradigm.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Data Analysis of Network Parameters for Secure Implementations of SDN-Based Firewall

    Rizwan Iqbal1,*, Rashid Hussain2, Sheeraz Arif3, Nadia Mustaqim Ansari4, Tayyab Ahmed Shaikh2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.77, No.2, pp. 1575-1598, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.042432

    Abstract Software-Defined Networking (SDN) is a new network technology that uses programming to complement the data plane with a control plane. To enable safe connection, however, numerous security challenges must be addressed. Flooding attacks have been one of the most prominent risks on the internet for decades, and they are now becoming challenging difficulties in SDN networks. To solve these challenges, we proposed a unique firewall application built on multiple levels of packet filtering to provide a flooding attack prevention system and a layer-based packet detection system. This study offers a systematic strategy for wrapping up… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Use of Statistical Tools for Comparison between Different Analytical and Semi-Empirical Models of the Bleve Fireball

    Abderraouf Guelzim1,2,*, Baraka Achraf Chakir3, Aziz Ettahir1, Anas Mbarki1,*

    Frontiers in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol.21, pp. 125-140, 2023, DOI:10.32604/fhmt.2023.041832

    Abstract The Bleve is an explosion involving both the rapid vaporization of liquid and the rapid expansion of vapor in a vessel. The loss of containment results in a large fireball if the stored chemical is flammable. In order to predict the damage generated by a Bleve, several authors propose analytical or semi-empirical correlations, which consist in predicting the diameter and the lifetime of the fireballs according to the quantity of fuel. These models are based on previous experience, which makes their validity arbitrary in relation to the initial conditions and the nature of the product… More > Graphic Abstract

    Use of Statistical Tools for Comparison between Different Analytical and Semi-Empirical Models of the Bleve Fireball

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