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  • Open Access


    Hydrolysable Chestnut Tannin Extract Chemical Complexity in Its Reactions for Non-Isocyanate Polyurethanes (NIPU) Foams

    Elham Azadeh1, Antonio Pizzi1,2,*, Christine Gerardin-Charbonnier1,*, Philippe Gerardin1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.6, pp. 2823-2848, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.027651

    Abstract Non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) foams from a commercial hydrolysable tannin extract, chestnut wood tannin extract, have been prepared to determine what chemical species and products are taking part in the reactions involved. This method is based on two main steps: the reaction with dimethyl carbonate and the formation of urethane bonds by further reaction of the carbonated tannin with a diamine-like hexamethylene diamine. The hydroxyl groups on the tannin polyphenols and on the carbohydrates intimately linked with it and part of a hydrolysable tannin are the groups involved in these reactions. The carbohydrate skeleton of the hydrolysable tannin is also able… More > Graphic Abstract

    Hydrolysable Chestnut Tannin Extract Chemical Complexity in Its  Reactions for Non-Isocyanate Polyurethanes (NIPU) Foams

  • Open Access


    MALDI ToF Investigation of the Reaction of Soy Protein Isolate with Glutaraldehyde for Wood Adhesives

    Qianyu Zhang1,2, Antonio Pizzi3, Hong Lei1,2,*, Xuedong Xi1,2,*, Ming Cao1,2, Long Cao1,2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.3, pp. 1439-1450, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.023535

    Abstract Soy protein adhesives are currently a hot research topic in the wood panels industry for the abundant raw material reserves, reasonable price and outstanding environmental features. But their poor water resistance, low bonding strength and intolerance to mold are major drawbacks, so that proper modification before use is essential. Glutaraldehyde is one of the more apt cross-linking agents for soybean protein adhesives, which can effectively improve the bonding strength and water resistance of the adhesive. Equally, glutaraldehyde is also an efficient and broad-spectrum fungicide that can significantly improve the anti-fungal properties of a soy protein adhesive. In the work presented… More > Graphic Abstract

    MALDI ToF Investigation of the Reaction of Soy Protein Isolate with Glutaraldehyde for Wood Adhesives

  • Open Access


    Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) Mass Spectrometry of Phenol-FormaldehydeChestnut Tannin Resins

    M.C. Lagel1,*, A. Pizzi1,2, S. Giovando3

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.2, No.3, pp. 207-219, 2014, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2014.634111

    Abstract Natural hydrolysable chestnut tannin extracts used to partially substitute phenol in Phenol-Formaldehyde (PF) resins for phenolic rigid foams were analysed by matrix-assisted desorption ionization time of fl ight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. PF only, chestnut only and PF-chestnut copolymerised oligomer types and distribution were determined. MALDI-TOF analyses of a PF control resin (with the same molar ratio) and of chestnut tannin extracts were performed in order to identify the peaks of molecular weights corresponding to copolymers of chestnut tannins with phenol and formaldehyde. More >

  • Open Access


    MALDI-ToF Analysis of Tannin-Resorcinol Resins by Alternative Aldehydes: Glyoxal and Glutaraldehyde

    A. Sauget1,*, X. Zhou1, A. Pizzi1,2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.2, No.3, pp. 186-200, 2014, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2013.634138

    Abstract Glyoxal and glutaraldehyde are two viable alternatives to formaldehyde for the preparation of tanninresorcinol-aldehyde adhesive but lead to less resistant glue joint. Tannin-resorcinol-glyoxal (TRG1) and tannin-resorcinol-glutaraldehyde (TRG2) resins have been prepared and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of fl ight (MALDI-ToF) spectrometry to understand the chemical process behind the pre-curing of these resins and possibly the causes of this lower resistance. The analysis showed that TRG resins are not a simple mix of resorcinol-aldehydes oligomers and fl avonoids, but a much more complex combination of various species including tannin-aldehydes and tannin-resorcinol oligomers. More >

  • Open Access


    Covalent and Ionic Bonding between Tannin and Collagen in Leather Making and Shrinking: A MALDI-ToF Study

    Antonio Pizzi*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.8, pp. 1345-1364, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.015663

    Abstract Collagen powder hydrolysates were reacted with a solution of commercial mimosa bark tannin extract. The mixture was prepared at ambient temperature and prepared at 80°C to determine what reactions, if any, did occur between the collagen protein through its amino acids and the polyphenolic condensed tannin. The reaction products obtained were analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI ToF) mass spectrometry. Reactions between the two materials did appear to occur, with the formation of a relatively small proportion of covalent and ionic linkages at ambient temperature but a considerable proportion of covalent linkages tannin-protein amino acids and the… More >

  • Open Access


    Differentiation of Fungal Destructive Behaviour of Wood by the White-Rot Fungus Fomes fomentarius by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    Ehsan Bari1,*, Antonio Pizzi2,*, Olaf Schmidt3, Siham Amirou2, Mohammad Ali Tajick-Ghanbary4, Miha Humar5

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.3, pp. 381-397, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.015288

    Abstract There are many methods to identify and recognize the molecular and behavioural differences between organisms. One of the methods for the detection and identification of unknown organisms as well as intermolecular and intramolecular structural differences is MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Therefore, differentiation of Fomes fomentarius decay capabilities on the chemical properties of the wood cell wall of the tree species Quercus castaneifolia, Juglans regia, and Carpinus betulus were used to determine and characterize the destructive behaviour of F. fomentarius decay by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The results showed that the fungus had more signifi- cant destructive behaviour on J. regia than the… More >

  • Open Access


    Hydroxymethylfurfural Hardening of Pine Tannin Wood Adhesives

    F.-J. Santiago-Medina1, A. Pizzi1,2,*, S. Abdalla2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.5, pp. 435-447, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634166

    Abstract An adhesive based on the reaction of a very fast reacting procyanidin-type condensed tannin, namely purified pine bark tannin, with a biosourced nontoxic and nonvolatile aldehyde derived from the pulp and paper industry, namely hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), was shown to almost satisfy the relevant standards for bonding wood particleboard. The conditions of pH used are determinant for the result. The oligomers obtained by the reaction and their distribution have been determined by matrix-assisted laser ionization desorption time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Of the two reactive groups of hydroxymethylfurfural capable of reacting, the furanic aldehyde one and the furanic hydroxymethyl alcohol group, only… More >

  • Open Access


    Polyurethanes from Kraft Lignin without Using Isocyanates

    F.J. Santiago-Medina1, M.C. Basso1, A. Pizzi1,2,*, L. Delmotte3

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.4, pp. 413-425, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634172

    Abstract The reaction of a desulphurized kraft lignin with hexamethylene diamine and dimethyl carbonate has allowed the development of isocyanate-free polyurethane resins. The present research work is based on previous studies made with hydrolyzable and condensed tannins, but takes advantage of the higher number of hydroxyl groups present in lignin and their different aliphatic and aromatic character. The obtained materials were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and solid-state cross-polarization/magic angle spinning (CP MAS) 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), which have revealed the presence of urethane functions. The interpretation of the… More >

  • Open Access


    Polycondensation Resins by Lignin Reaction with (Poly) amines

    F. J. Santiago-Medina1, A. Pizzi1, 2*, M. C. Basso1, L. Delmotte3, S. Abdalla2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.5, pp. 388-399, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634142

    Abstract The reaction of a desulphurized kraft lignin with hexamethylene diamine as a model of a polyamine has been investigated. For this purpose, guaiacol was also used as a lignin model compound and treated under similar conditions. Solid state CP-MAS 13C NMR, FTIR and MALDI-TOF spectroscopy studies revealed that polycondensation compounds leading to resins were obtained by the reaction of the amines with the phenolic and aliphatic hydroxy groups of lignin. Simultaneously a second reaction leading to the formation of ionic bonds between the same groups occurred. These new reactions have been clearly shown to involve several phenolic and alcohol hydroxyl… More >

  • Open Access


    Isocyanate-Free Polyurethanes by Coreaction of Condensed Tannins with Aminated Tannins

    M. Thébault1,2, A. Pizzi13*, F.J. Santiago-Medina1, F.M. Al-Marzouki3, S. Abdalla3

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.1, pp. 21-29, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2016.634116

    Abstract Isocyanate-free polyurethane resins biosourced to a very high percentage level were prepared by the reaction of aminated mimosa tannin extract with commercial mimosa tannin extract prereacted with dimethyl carbonate. The reaction took place with ease at ambient temperature. Indications were that the polyurethanes obtained formed a hard film when cured at a temperature higher than 100 °C. Furthermore, the carbohydrate fraction of the tannin extract also appeared to be carbonated and reacted to generate isocyanate-free polyurethane linkages with the aminated tannins. This indicated that not only the polyphenolic fraction of the tannin extract, but also its other major component, can… More >

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