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Search Results (7)
  • Open Access


    A Methodology to Reduce Thermal Gradients Due to the Exothermic Reactions in Resin Transfer Molding Applications

    Aouatif Saad1,*, Mohammed EL Ganaoui2

    FDMP-Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, Vol.19, No.1, pp. 95-103, 2023, DOI:10.32604/fdmp.2023.022014

    Abstract Resin transfer molding (RTM) is among the most used manufacturing processes for composite parts. Initially, the resin cure is initiated by heat supply to the mold. The supplementary heat generated during the reaction can cause thermal gradients in the composite, potentially leading to undesired residual stresses which can cause shrinkage and warpage. In the present numerical study of these processes, a one-dimensional finite difference method is used to predict the temperature evolution and the degree of cure in the course of the resin polymerization; the effect of some parameters on the thermal gradient is then More >

  • Open Access


    Numerical Study on the Resin Transfer Molding Curing Process for Thick Composites Materials

    Rida Tazi1, Adil Echchelh1, Mohammed Hattabi2, Mohammed El Ganaoui3, Aouatif Saad4,*

    FDMP-Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, Vol.19, No.1, pp. 223-232, 2023, DOI:10.32604/fdmp.2023.021976

    Abstract The successful manufacture of thick composites is challenging since the highly exothermic nature of thermoset resins and limited temperature control make avoiding the onset of detrimental thermal gradients within the composite relatively difficult. This phenomenon is mainly caused by exothermic heat reactions. The so-called Michaud's model has been largely used in the literature to reduce the gap between experience and simulation with regard to the effective prediction of the temperature cycle in these processes. In this work, another solution is proposed to simulate the curing process for thick composites, namely preheating the resin to activate More >

  • Open Access


    Computational Environment for the Multiscale, Multi-Physics Resin Transfer Molding Process

    B. J. Henz1, D. R. Shires2

    The International Conference on Computational & Experimental Engineering and Sciences, Vol.7, No.1, pp. 13-18, 2008, DOI:10.3970/icces.2008.007.013

    Abstract The capability to predict the residual stresses induced during the manufacturing process in composite components is necessary for the timely fielding of new combat systems. At the U.S. Army Research Laboratory we have developed a computational environment to model the resin flow, heat transfer, curing, and residual stresses in composite components manufactured with the resin transfer molding (RTM) process. This computational environment uses object-oriented programming methods to provide model coupling capabilities and access to high performance computing assets. In this paper we will provide details of the physical models, software, and the validation/verification procedure used More >

  • Open Access


    A Real-Coded Hybrid Genetic Algorithm to Determine Optimal Resin Injection Locations in the Resin Transfer Molding Process

    R. Mathur1, S. G. Advani2, B. K. Fink3

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.4, No.5, pp. 587-602, 2003, DOI:10.3970/cmes.2003.004.587

    Abstract Real number-coded hybrid genetic algorithms for optimal design of resin injection locations for the resin transfer molding process are evaluated in this paper. Resin transfer molding (RTM) is widely used to manufacture composite parts with material and geometric complexities, especially in automotive and aerospace sectors. The sub-optimal location of the resin injection locations (gates) can leads to the formation of resin starved regions and require long mold fill times, thus affecting the part quality and increasing manufacturing costs. There is a need for automated design algorithms and software that can determine the best gate and… More >

  • Open Access


    Non-Isothermal Three-Dimensional Developments and Process Modeling of Composites: Flow/Thermal/Cure Formulations and Experimental Validations

    N. D. Ngo, K. K. Tamma1

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.1, No.3, pp. 57-72, 2000, DOI:10.3970/cmes.2000.001.359

    Abstract In the process modeling via Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) for thick composite sections, multi-layer preforms with varying thermophysical characteristics across the different layers, or for geometrically complex mold geometries with varying thicknesses, the assumption of a thin shell-like geometry is no longer valid. The flow in the through thickness direction is no longer negligible and current practices of treating the continuously moving flow front as two-dimensional and the temperature and cure as three-dimensional are not representative of the underlying physics. In view of these considerations, in the present study, the focus is on the non-isothermal… More >

  • Open Access


    A Study on the Properties of Resin Transfer Molding Cyanate Ester and Its T800 Grade Carbon Fiber Composites

    Qiuren Ou1,2,*, Peijun Ji2, Jun Xiao1, Ling Wu2

    FDMP-Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, Vol.15, No.1, pp. 27-37, 2019, DOI:10.32604/fdmp.2019.04787

    Abstract The properties of resin transfer molding (RTM) cyanate ester and its T800 grade carbon fiber composites were studied with the rheometer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), FT-IR, dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), mechanical property testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the temperature of cyanate ester suitable for RTM process was 70℃. Curing process of the resin was 130℃/2 h+160℃/2 h+200℃/2 h+220℃/4 h. Glass transition temperature and heat decomposition temperature of the cured resin are 289℃ and 415℃, respectively. Mechanical properties of T800/RTM cyanate composites are 13.5% higher than that More >

  • Open Access


    Numerical Simulation and Analysis of Flow in Resin Transfer Moulding Process

    A. Saad1,2, A. Echchelh1, M. Hattabi3, M. El Ganaoui4, F. Lahlou1

    FDMP-Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, Vol.8, No.3, pp. 277-294, 2012, DOI:10.3970/fdmp.2012.008.277

    Abstract A modified finite element/control volume (FE/CV) method is used to solve the resin flow problem. Full advantage is taken of some of the intrinsic peculiar characteristics of the method, in particular, of its capability of eliminating the need to remesh continuously the resin-filled domain at each time step. The model leads to the numerical prediction of temperature, pressure distribution and flow front position with great accuracy, together with a precise representation of the thermal (spatio-temporal) behaviour of the resin inside the mould. The validity of such approach is validated by comparison with available analytical results. More >

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