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  • Open Access


    Transcriptome-Wide Identification and Functional Analysis of PgSQE08-01 Gene in Ginsenoside Biosynthesis in Panax ginseng C. A. Mey.

    Lei Zhu1,#, Lihe Hou1,3,#, Yu Zhang1, Yang Jiang1, Yi Wang1,2, Meiping Zhang1,2, Mingzhu Zhao1,2,*, Kangyu Wang1,2,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.93, No.2, pp. 313-327, 2024, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2024.047938

    Abstract Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. is an important plant species used in traditional Chinese medicine, whose primary active ingredient is a ginsenoside. Ginsenoside biosynthesis is not only regulated by transcription factors but also controlled by a variety of structural genes. Nonetheless, the molecular mechanism underlying ginsenoside biosynthesis has always been a topic in the discussion of ginseng secondary metabolites. Squalene epoxidase (SQE) is a key enzyme in the mevalonic acid pathway, which affects the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites such as terpenoid. Using ginseng transcriptome, expression, and ginsenoside content databases, this study employed bioinformatic methods to systematically… More >

  • Open Access


    A New Micropropagation Technology of Tilia amurensis: In Vitro Micropropagation of Mature Zygotic Embryos and the Establishment of a Plant Regeneration System

    Shijie Lin1, Zimo Wang1, Hongbo Zhu2, Conghui Wang3, Hongfeng Wang2, Dawei Zhang1, Tianbing Gou1, Guangdao Bao1, Ye Luo1, Huaijiang He1, Zhonghui Zhang1,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.93, No.2, pp. 277-289, 2024, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2024.046989

    Abstract Tilia amurensis is an economically valuable broadleaf tree species in Northeast China. The production of high-quality T. amurensis varieties at commercial scales has been greatly limited by the low germination rates. There is thus a pressing need to develop an organogenesis protocol for in vitro propagation of T. amurensis to alleviate a shortage of high-quality T. amurensis seedlings. Here, we established a rapid in vitro propagation system for T. amurensis from mature zygotic embryos and analyzed the effects of plant growth regulators and culture media in different stages. We found that Woody plant medium (WPM) was the optimal primary culture medium for… More >

  • Open Access


    Involvement of the ABA- and H2O2-Mediated Ascorbate–Glutathione Cycle in the Drought Stress Responses of Wheat Roots

    Mengyuan Li1, Zhongye Gao1,2, Lina Jiang1, Leishan Chen1,2,*, Jianhui Ma1,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.93, No.2, pp. 329-342, 2024, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2024.046976

    Abstract Abscisic acid (ABA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ascorbate (AsA)–glutathione (GSH) cycle are widely known for their participation in various stresses. However, the relationship between ABA and H2O2 levels and the AsA–GSH cycle under drought stress in wheat has not been studied. In this study, a hydroponic experiment was conducted in wheat seedlings subjected to 15% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000–induced dehydration. Drought stress caused the rapid accumulation of endogenous ABA and H2O2 and significantly decreased the number of root tips compared with the control. The application of ABA significantly increased the number of root tips, whereas the application… More >

  • Open Access


    Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Model for Intelligent Fire Intensity Detection Algorithm with Decision Making in Low-Power Devices

    Emmanuel Lule1,2,*, Chomora Mikeka3, Alexander Ngenzi4, Didacienne Mukanyiligira5

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.38, No.1, pp. 57-81, 2023, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2023.037988

    Abstract Local markets in East Africa have been destroyed by raging fires, leading to the loss of life and property in the nearby communities. Electrical circuits, arson, and neglected charcoal stoves are the major causes of these fires. Previous methods, i.e., satellites, are expensive to maintain and cause unnecessary delays. Also, unit-smoke detectors are highly prone to false alerts. In this paper, an Interval Type-2 TSK fuzzy model for an intelligent lightweight fire intensity detection algorithm with decision-making in low-power devices is proposed using a sparse inference rules approach. A free open–source MATLAB/Simulink fuzzy toolbox integrated… More >

  • Open Access


    Variation Characteristics of Root Traits of Different Alfalfa Cultivars under Saline-Alkaline Stress and their Relationship with Soil Environmental Factors

    Tian-Jiao Wei1, Guang Li1, Yan-Ru Cui1, Jiao Xie1, Xing-Ai Gao1, Xing Teng1, Xin-Ying Zhao1, Fa-Chun Guan1,*, Zheng-Wei Liang2,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.93, No.1, pp. 29-43, 2024, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.046078

    Abstract Soil salinization is the main factor that threatens the growth and development of plants and limits the increase of yield. It is of great significance to study the key soil environmental factors affecting plant root traits to reveal the adaptation strategies of plants to saline-alkaline-stressed soil environments. In this study, the root biomass, root morphological parameters and root mineral nutrient content of two alfalfa cultivars with different sensitivities to alkaline stress were analyzed with black soil as the control group and the mixed saline-alkaline soil with a ratio of 7:3 between black soil and saline-alkaline… More >

  • Open Access


    The Effect of Soil Enzymes and Polysaccharides Secreted by the Roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge under Drought, High Temperature, and Nitrogen and Phosphorus Deficits

    Yong Qin1,2, Xiaoyu Li1,2, Yanhong Wu1,2, Hai Wang3, Guiqi Han1,2,3, Zhuyun Yan1,2,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.93, No.1, pp. 119-135, 2024, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.046075

    Abstract Root exudates serve as crucial mediators for information exchange between plants and soil, and are an important evolutionary mechanism for plants’ adaptation to environmental changes. In this study, 15 different abiotic stress models were established using various stress factors, including drought (D), high temperature (T), nitrogen deficiency (N), phosphorus deficiency (P), and their combinations. We investigated their effects on the seedling growth of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and the activities of Solid-Urease (S-UE), Solid-Nitrite Reductase (S-NiR), Solid-Nitrate Reductase (S-NR), Solid-Phosphotransferase (S-PT), and Solid-Catalase (S-CAT), as well as the contents of polysaccharides in the culture medium. The results… More >

  • Open Access


    The IDD Transcription Factors: Their Functions in Plant Development and Environmental Response

    Jing Liu1,*, Defeng Shu1, Zilong Tan1, Mei Ma1, Huanhuan Yang1, Ning Guo1,2, Shipeng Li1, Dayong Cui1,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.93, No.1, pp. 63-79, 2024, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.045940

    Abstract INDETERMINATE-DOMAIN proteins (IDDs) are a plant-specific transcription factor family characterized by a conserved ID domain with four zinc finger motifs. Previous studies have demonstrated that IDDs coordinate a diversity of physiological processes and functions in plant growth and development, including floral transition, plant architecture, seed and root development, and hormone signaling. In this review, we especially summarized the latest knowledge on the functions and working models of IDD members in Arabidopsis, rice, and maize, particularly focusing on their role in the regulatory network of biotic and abiotic environmental responses, such as gravity, temperature, water, and More >

  • Open Access


    Silicon Mitigates Aluminum Toxicity of Tartary Buckwheat by Regulating Antioxidant Systems

    Anyin Qi1,#, Xiaonan Yan1,#, Yuqing Liu1,#, Qingchen Zeng1, Hang Yuan1, Huange Huang1, Chenggang Liang2, Dabing Xiang1, Liang Zou1, Lianxin Peng1, Gang Zhao1, Jingwei Huang1,*, Yan Wan1,*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.93, No.1, pp. 1-13, 2024, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.045802


    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a considerable factor limiting crop yield and biomass in acidic soil. Tartary buckwheat growing in acidic soil may suffer from Al poisoning. Here, we investigated the influence of Al stress on the growth of tartary buckwheat seedling roots, and the alleviation of Al stress by silicon (Si), as has been demonstrated in many crops. Under Al stress, root growth (total root length, primary root length, root tips, root surface area, and root volume) was significantly inhibited, and Al and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulated in the root tips. At the same time, catalase (CAT)

    More >

  • Open Access


    Energy Efficient and Intelligent Mosquito Repellent Fuzzy Control System

    Aaqib Inam1, Zhu Li1,*, Salah-ud-din Khokhar2, Zubia Zafar3, Muhammad Imran4

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.77, No.1, pp. 699-715, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.039707

    Abstract Mosquitoes are of great concern for occasionally carrying noxious diseases (dengue, malaria, zika, and yellow fever). To control mosquitoes, it is very crucial to effectively monitor their behavioral trends and presence. Traditional mosquito repellent works by heating small pads soaked in repellant, which then diffuses a protected area around you, a great alternative to spraying yourself with insecticide. But they have limitations, including the range, turning them on manually, and then waiting for the protection to kick in when the mosquitoes may find you. This research aims to design a fuzzy-based controller to solve the… More >

  • Open Access


    The Cotton GhWRKY91 Gene Negatively Regulates Root Elongation in Overexpressed Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    Yueying Liu#, Yuqing Wang#, Lijiao Gu*

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.11, pp. 2937-2946, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.043306

    Abstract WRKY transcription factors play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. Our previous research has shown that the GhWRKY91 gene can delay age-, abscisic acid (ABA)-, and drought-induced leaf senescence when overexpressed in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. To explore in more depth the biological functions of the GhWRKY91 gene, we further observed the root growth of overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana under ABA and drought treatment. In this study, we transplanted the germinated seeds of wild-type (WT) and three transgenic lines (OE-12, OE-13 and OE-20) to 1/2 MS solid medium containing ABA and different concentrations of mannitol (simulated… More >

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