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  • Open Access


    Reliable Data Collection Model and Transmission Framework in Large-Scale Wireless Medical Sensor Networks

    Haosong Gou1, Gaoyi Zhang1, Renê Ripardo Calixto2, Senthil Kumar Jagatheesaperumal3, Victor Hugo C. de Albuquerque2,*

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.140, No.1, pp. 1077-1102, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2024.047806

    Abstract Large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs) play a critical role in monitoring dangerous scenarios and responding to medical emergencies. However, the inherent instability and error-prone nature of wireless links present significant challenges, necessitating efficient data collection and reliable transmission services. This paper addresses the limitations of existing data transmission and recovery protocols by proposing a systematic end-to-end design tailored for medical event-driven cluster-based large-scale WSNs. The primary goal is to enhance the reliability of data collection and transmission services, ensuring a comprehensive and practical approach. Our approach focuses on refining the hop-count-based routing scheme to achieve fairness in forwarding reliability. Additionally,… More >

  • Open Access


    Rao Algorithms-Based Structure Optimization for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Shereen K. Refaay1, Samia A. Ali2, Moumen T. El-Melegy2, Louai A. Maghrabi3, Hamdy H. El-Sayed1,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.78, No.1, pp. 873-897, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.044982

    Abstract The structural optimization of wireless sensor networks is a critical issue because it impacts energy consumption and hence the network’s lifetime. Many studies have been conducted for homogeneous networks, but few have been performed for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. This paper utilizes Rao algorithms to optimize the structure of heterogeneous wireless sensor networks according to node locations and their initial energies. The proposed algorithms lack algorithm-specific parameters and metaphorical connotations. The proposed algorithms examine the search space based on the relations of the population with the best, worst, and randomly assigned solutions. The proposed algorithms can be evaluated using any… More >

  • Open Access


    An Optimal Node Localization in WSN Based on Siege Whale Optimization Algorithm

    Thi-Kien Dao1, Trong-The Nguyen1,2,*

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.138, No.3, pp. 2201-2237, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.029880

    Abstract Localization or positioning scheme in Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is one of the most challenging and fundamental operations in various monitoring or tracking applications because the network deploys a large area and allocates the acquired location information to unknown devices. The metaheuristic approach is one of the most advantageous ways to deal with this challenging issue and overcome the disadvantages of the traditional methods that often suffer from computational time problems and small network deployment scale. This study proposes an enhanced whale optimization algorithm that is an advanced metaheuristic algorithm based on the siege mechanism (SWOA) for node localization in… More >

  • Open Access


    Unweighted Voting Method to Detect Sinkhole Attack in RPL-Based Internet of Things Networks

    Shadi Al-Sarawi1, Mohammed Anbar1,*, Basim Ahmad Alabsi2, Mohammad Adnan Aladaileh3, Shaza Dawood Ahmed Rihan2

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.77, No.1, pp. 491-515, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.041108

    Abstract The Internet of Things (IoT) consists of interconnected smart devices communicating and collecting data. The Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) is the standard protocol for Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) in the IoT. However, RPL is vulnerable to various attacks, including the sinkhole attack, which disrupts the network by manipulating routing information. This paper proposes the Unweighted Voting Method (UVM) for sinkhole node identification, utilizing three key behavioral indicators: DODAG Information Object (DIO) Transaction Frequency, Rank Harmony, and Power Consumption. These indicators have been carefully selected based on their contribution to sinkhole attack detection and other relevant… More >

  • Open Access


    Developed Fall Detection of Elderly Patients in Internet of Healthcare Things

    Omar Reyad1,2, Hazem Ibrahim Shehata1,3, Mohamed Esmail Karar1,4,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.76, No.2, pp. 1689-1700, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.039084

    Abstract Falling is among the most harmful events older adults may encounter. With the continuous growth of the aging population in many societies, developing effective fall detection mechanisms empowered by machine learning technologies and easily integrable with existing healthcare systems becomes essential. This paper presents a new healthcare Internet of Health Things (IoHT) architecture built around an ensemble machine learning-based fall detection system (FDS) for older people. Compared to deep neural networks, the ensemble multi-stage random forest model allows the extraction of an optimal subset of fall detection features with minimal hyperparameters. The number of cascaded random forest stages is automatically… More >

  • Open Access


    Modified Dwarf Mongoose Optimization Enabled Energy Aware Clustering Scheme for Cognitive Radio Wireless Sensor Networks

    Sami Saeed Binyamin1, Mahmoud Ragab2,*

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.47, No.1, pp. 105-119, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.037311

    Abstract Cognitive radio wireless sensor networks (CRWSN) can be defined as a promising technology for developing bandwidth-limited applications. CRWSN is widely utilized by future Internet of Things (IoT) applications. Since a promising technology, Cognitive Radio (CR) can be modelled to alleviate the spectrum scarcity issue. Generally, CRWSN has cognitive radio-enabled sensor nodes (SNs), which are energy limited. Hierarchical cluster-related techniques for overall network management can be suitable for the scalability and stability of the network. This paper focuses on designing the Modified Dwarf Mongoose Optimization Enabled Energy Aware Clustering (MDMO-EAC) Scheme for CRWSN. The MDMO-EAC technique mainly intends to group the… More >

  • Open Access


    Design of Evolutionary Algorithm Based Unequal Clustering for Energy Aware Wireless Sensor Networks

    Mohammed Altaf Ahmed1, T. Satyanarayana Murthy2, Fayadh Alenezi3, E. Laxmi Lydia4, Seifedine Kadry5,6,7, Yena Kim8, Yunyoung Nam8,*

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.47, No.1, pp. 1283-1297, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.035786

    Abstract Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) play a vital role in several real-time applications ranging from military to civilian. Despite the benefits of WSN, energy efficiency becomes a major part of the challenging issue in WSN, which necessitate proper load balancing amongst the clusters and serves a wider monitoring region. The clustering technique for WSN has several benefits: lower delay, higher energy efficiency, and collision avoidance. But clustering protocol has several challenges. In a large-scale network, cluster-based protocols mainly adapt multi-hop routing to save energy, leading to hot spot problems. A hot spot problem becomes a problem where a cluster node nearer… More >

  • Open Access


    A Review and Analysis of Localization Techniques in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    Seema Rani1, Anju1, Anupma Sangwan1, Krishna Kumar2, Kashif Nisar3, Tariq Rahim Soomro3, Ag. Asri Ag. Ibrahim4,*, Manoj Gupta5, Laxmi Chand5, Sadiq Ali Khan6

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.3, pp. 5697-5715, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.033007

    Abstract In recent years, there has been a rapid growth in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs). The focus of research in this area is now on solving the problems associated with large-scale UWSN. One of the major issues in such a network is the localization of underwater nodes. Localization is required for tracking objects and detecting the target. It is also considered tagging of data where sensed contents are not found of any use without localization. This is useless for application until the position of sensed content is confirmed. This article’s major goal is to review and analyze underwater node localization… More >

  • Open Access


    On Layout Optimization of Wireless Sensor Network Using Meta-Heuristic Approach

    Abeeda Akram1, Kashif Zafar1, Adnan Noor Mian2, Abdul Rauf Baig3, Riyad Almakki3, Lulwah AlSuwaidan3, Shakir Khan3,4,*

    Computer Systems Science and Engineering, Vol.46, No.3, pp. 3685-3701, 2023, DOI:10.32604/csse.2023.032024

    Abstract One of the important research issues in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is the optimal layout designing for the deployment of sensor nodes. It directly affects the quality of monitoring, cost, and detection capability of WSNs. Layout optimization is an NP-hard combinatorial problem, which requires optimization of multiple competing objectives like cost, coverage, connectivity, lifetime, load balancing, and energy consumption of sensor nodes. In the last decade, several meta-heuristic optimization techniques have been proposed to solve this problem, such as genetic algorithms (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). However, these approaches either provided computationally expensive solutions or covered a limited number… More >

  • Open Access


    Wireless Sensor Security Issues on Data Link Layer: A Survey

    Muhammad Zulkifl Hasan*, Zurina Mohd Hanapi, Muhammad Zunnurain Hussain

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.75, No.2, pp. 4065-4084, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2023.036444

    Abstract A computer network can be defined as many computing devices connected via a communication medium like the internet. Computer network development has proposed how humans and devices communicate today. These networks have improved, facilitated, and made conventional forms of communication easier. However, it has also led to uptick in-network threats and assaults. In 2022, the global market for information technology is expected to reach $170.4 billion. However, in contrast, 95% of cyber security threats globally are caused by human action. These networks may be utilized in several control systems, such as home-automation, chemical and physical assault detection, intrusion detection, and… More >

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