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  • Open Access


    Thermodynamic Simulation on the Change in Phase for Carburizing Process

    Anh Tuan Hoang1, Xuan Phuong Nguyen2, Osamah Ibrahim Khalaf3, Thi Xuan Tran4, Minh Quang Chau5, Thi Minh Hao Dong2, Duong Nam Nguyen6,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.68, No.1, pp. 1129-1145, 2021, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2021.015349

    Abstract The type of technology used to strengthen the surface structure of machine parts, typically by carbon-permeation, has made a great contribution to the mechanical engineering industry because of its outstanding advantages in corrosion resistance and enhanced mechanical and physical properties. Furthermore, carbon permeation is considered as an optimal method of heat treatment through the diffusion of carbon atoms into the surface of alloy steel. This study presented research results on the thermodynamic calculation and simulation of the carbon permeability process. Applying Fick’s law, the paper calculated the distribution of carbon concentration in the alloy steel… More >

  • Open Access


    Carbon concentration in structures of Arctostaphylos pungens HBK: An alternative CO2 sink in forests

    Pompa-García M1, E Jurado2

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.2, pp. 385-389, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.385

    Abstract Arctostaphylos pungens HBK is a dominant species with increasing abundance and distribution in chaparral ecosystems as a result of range management and, possibly, changes in climate. The value of this species for carbon (C) sequestration is unknown, and the standard 50% C out of total tree biomass is used as an approximate value. In this study, we aim to determine the C concentration of the primary components of A. pungens. The total C expressed as a percentage of biomass was determined with a Solids TOC Analyzer. We found the C concentration to vary among components. Leaves exhibited the More >

  • Open Access


    Effect of hydrocarbon concentration of pasture production (Brachiaria humidicola) in Texistepec, Veracruz

    Adams RH, AL Álvarez-Ovando, G Castañón N

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 222-232, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.222

    Abstract In this study, the relationship between the concentration of extra-heavy crude petroleum in a clayey material and the toxicity, field capacity, temperature, and growth of a tropical forage grass (Brachiara humidicola) was determined empirically. For this type of petroleum the acute toxicity (Microtox®) was slight (CE50 = 63200 - 76400 mg/kg) even at high hydrocarbon concentrations (29279 mg/kg). Nonetheless, serious impacts were encountered in terms of an increase in soil temperature (+ 1.3 °C), reduction in field capacity (-10.7%) and reduction in aerial biomass (-97%). The relationship between hydrocarbon concentration and biomass resulted in a typical dose-response More >

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