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  • Open Access


    Falcon Optimization Algorithm-Based Energy Efficient Communication Protocol for Cluster-Based Vehicular Networks

    Youseef Alotaibi1, B. Rajasekar2, R. Jayalakshmi3, Surendran Rajendran4,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.78, No.3, pp. 4243-4262, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.047608

    Abstract Rapid development in Information Technology (IT) has allowed several novel application regions like large outdoor vehicular networks for Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) transmission. Vehicular networks give a safe and more effective driving experience by presenting time-sensitive and location-aware data. The communication occurs directly between V2V and Base Station (BS) units such as the Road Side Unit (RSU), named as a Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I). However, the frequent topology alterations in VANETs generate several problems with data transmission as the vehicle velocity differs with time. Therefore, the scheme of an effectual routing protocol for reliable and stable communications… More >

  • Open Access


    Exploration of IoT Nodes Communication Using LoRaWAN in Forest Environment

    Anshul Sharma1, Divneet Singh Kapoor1, Anand Nayyar2,3,*, Basit Qureshi4, Kiran Jot Singh1, Khushal Thakur1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.71, No.3, pp. 6239-6256, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.024639

    Abstract The simultaneous advances in the Internet of Things (IoT), Artificial intelligence (AI) and Robotics is going to revolutionize our world in the near future. In recent years, LoRa (Long Range) wireless powered by LoRaWAN (LoRa Wide Area Network) protocol has attracted the attention of researchers for numerous applications in the IoT domain. LoRa is a low power, unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band-equipped wireless technology that utilizes a wide area network protocol, i.e., LoRaWAN, to incorporate itself into the network infrastructure. In this paper, we have evaluated the LoRaWAN communication protocol for the implementation of… More >

  • Open Access


    A Secure Communication Protocol for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Navid Ali Khan1, N. Z. Jhanjhi1,*, Sarfraz Nawaz Brohi2, Abdulwahab Ali Almazroi3, Abdulaleem Ali Almazroi4

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.70, No.1, pp. 601-618, 2022, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2022.019419

    Abstract Mavlink is a lightweight and most widely used open-source communication protocol used for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Multiple UAVs and autopilot systems support it, and it provides bi-directional communication between the UAV and Ground Control Station. The communications contain critical information about the UAV status and basic control commands sent from GCS to UAV and UAV to GCS. In order to increase the transfer speed and efficiency, the Mavlink does not encrypt the messages. As a result, the protocol is vulnerable to various security attacks such as Eavesdropping, GPS Spoofing, and DDoS. In this study, we… More >

  • Open Access


    Quantum Secure Direct Communication Protocol with Mutual Authentication Based on Single Photons and Bell States

    Lili Yan1, *, Shibin Zhang1, Yan Chang1, Zhibin Sun2, Zhiwei Sheng1

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.63, No.3, pp. 1297-1307, 2020, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2020.09873

    Abstract Quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) can transmit secret messages directly from one user to another without first establishing a shared secret key, which is different from quantum key distribution. In this paper, we propose a novel quantum secure direct communication protocol based on signal photons and Bell states. Before the execution of the proposed protocol, two participants Alice and Bob exchange their corresponding identity IDA and IDB through quantum key distribution and keep them secret, respectively. Then the message sender, Alice, encodes each secret message bit into two single photons (| 01〉or|10〉) or a Bell… More >

  • Open Access


    Controlled Secure Direct Communication Protocol via the Three-Qubit Partially Entangled Set of States

    Gang Xu1,2,*, Ke Xiao1,*, Zongpeng Li3, Xin-Xin Niu2,4, Michael Ryan5

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.58, No.3, pp. 809-827, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2019.04400

    Abstract In this paper, we first re-examine the previous protocol of controlled quantum secure direct communication of Zhang et al.’s scheme, which was found insecure under two kinds of attacks, fake entangled particles attack and disentanglement attack. Then, by changing the party of the preparation of cluster states and using unitary operations, we present an improved protocol which can avoid these two kinds of attacks. Moreover, the protocol is proposed using the three-qubit partially entangled set of states. It is more efficient by only using three particles rather than four or even more to transmit one More >

  • Open Access


    Event-Based Anomaly Detection for Non-Public Industrial Communication Protocols in SDN-Based Control Systems

    Ming Wan1, Jiangyuan Yao2,*, Yuan Jing1, Xi Jin3,4

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.55, No.3, pp. 447-463, 2018, DOI: 10.3970/cmc.2018.02195

    Abstract As the main communication mediums in industrial control networks, industrial communication protocols are always vulnerable to extreme exploitations, and it is very difficult to take protective measures due to their serious privacy. Based on the SDN (Software Defined Network) technology, this paper proposes a novel event-based anomaly detection approach to identify misbehaviors using non-public industrial communication protocols, and this approach can be installed in SDN switches as a security software appliance in SDN-based control systems. Furthermore, aiming at the unknown protocol specification and message format, this approach first restructures the industrial communication sessions and merges More >

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