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  • Open Access


    Chemical Modifi cation of Microbial Poly(γ-glutamic acid): Progress and Perspectives

    Sebastián Muñoz-Guerra*, Montserrat García-Alvarez, José A. Portilla-Arias

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.1, No.1, pp. 42-60, 2013, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2012.634105

    Abstract Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGGA) is an edible polypeptide excreted by certain bacteria that is presently accessible on a semi-industrial scale. Chemically, it is a nylon 4 derivative bearing a carboxylic side group attached to the fourth carbon of the repeating unit. Although this biopolymer is being exploited in the food, agriculture and cosmetic sectors, its use in massive applications as packaging or coating is still unknown mainly due to its instability in wet environments and unsuitability to be processed by common techniques. Chemical modifi cation of PGGA involving esterifi cation or amidation of the carboxylic group is the approach explored the… More >

  • Open Access


    Alterations in Metabolites Associated with Hypoxemia in Neonates and Infants with Congenital Heart Disease

    Evan Pagano1, Benjamin Frank1, James Jaggers2, Mark Twite3, Tracy T. Urban4, Jelena Klawitter2,#, Jesse Davidson1,#,*

    Congenital Heart Disease, Vol.15, No.4, pp. 251-265, 2020, DOI:10.32604/CHD.2020.012219

    Abstract Objectives: (1) To measure the global shift in the metabolome in hypoxemic versus non-hypoxemic infants with congenital heart disease; (2) To identify metabolites and metabolic pathways that are altered in hypoxemia. Study Design: Analysis of serum samples obtained prior to cardiopulmonary bypass from 82 infants ≤120 days old with congenital heart disease requiring surgery at Children’s Hospital Colorado. Infants were divided into groups based on preoperative oxygen saturations: non-hypoxemic (>92%), mild hypoxemia (85–92%), and severe hypoxemia (<85%). Tandem mass spectrometry was used to analyze 165 targeted metabolites. Partial least squares discriminant analysis and t-tests were used to determine differences among… More >

  • Open Access


    Immunohistochemistry of GluR1 subunits of AMPA receptors of rat cerebellar nerve cells


    BIOCELL, Vol.33, No.2, pp. 71-80, 2009, DOI:10.32604/biocell.2009.33.071

    Abstract The localization of GluR1 subunits of ionotropic glutamate receptors in the glial cells and inhibitory neurons of cerebellar cortex and their association with the climbing and parallel fibers, and basket cell axons were studied. Samples of P14 and P21 rat cerebellar cortex were exposed to a specific antibody against GluR1 subunit(s) of AMPA receptors and were examined with confocal laser scanning microscopy. GluR1 strong immunoreactivity was confined to Purkinje cell and the molecular layer. Weak GluR1 immunoreactivity was observed surrounding some Golgi cells in the granule cell layer. Intense GluR1 immunoreactivity was localized around Purkinje, basket, and stellate cells. Purkinje… More >

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