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  • Open Access


    Facile Preparation of Dopamine-Modified Magnetic Zinc Ferrite Immobilized Lipase for Highly Efficient Synthesis of OPO Functional Lipid

    Xue Huang1,*, Zeyu Chen1, Ruizhao Yang1, Guangzhu Feng2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.5, pp. 2301-2319, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.025888

    Abstract 1,3-Dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol (OPO) has been a hotspot of functional oils research in recent years, but due to the high cost of sn-1,3 specific lipase in enzymatic synthesis and the lack of biocatalyst stability, large-scale industrial application is difficult. In this study, the prepared magnetic ZnFe2O4 was functionalized with dopamine to obtain ZnFe2O4@PDA, and the nano-biocatalyst ZnFe2O4@PDA@RML was prepared by immobilizing sn-1,3 specific lipase of Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RML) via a cross-linking method. The existence of RML on ZnFe2O4@PDA was confirmed by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TEM. This strategy proved to be simple and effective because the lipase immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles… More > Graphic Abstract

    Facile Preparation of Dopamine-Modified Magnetic Zinc Ferrite Immobilized Lipase for Highly Efficient Synthesis of OPO Functional Lipid

  • Open Access


    Preparation and Characterization of Thermoplastic Starch from Sugar Palm (Arenga pinnata) by Extrusion Method

    Muhammad Ghozali1,2, Yenny Meliana2, Widya Fatriasari3, Petar Antov4, Mochamad Chalid1,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.4, pp. 1963-1976, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.026060

    Abstract Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch is considered an important renewable, biodegradable, and eco-friendly polymer, which is derived from agricultural by-products and residues, with great potential for the development of biocomposite materials. This research was aimed at investigating the development of TPS biocomposites from A. pinnata palm starch using an extrusion process. Palm starch, glycerol, and stearic acid were extruded in a twin-screw extruder. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of TPS showed that the starch granules were damaged and gelatinized in the extrusion process. The density of TPS was 1.3695 g/mL, lower than that of palm starch, and the addition of… More > Graphic Abstract

    Preparation and Characterization of Thermoplastic Starch from Sugar Palm (<i>Arenga pinnata</i>) by Extrusion Method

  • Open Access


    Effect of Glycerol and Reactive Compatibilizers on Poly(butylene succinate)/Starch Blends

    Supakij Suttiruengwong1,*, Kanchana Sotho1, Manus Seadan2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.2, No.1, pp. 85-92, 2014, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2013.634135

    Abstract A one-step process in an internal mixer was used to prepare Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)/high-loading modifi ed tapioca starch (30–40 wt%) blends with low glycerol content (10–20 wt% of starch) as a plasticizer. To promote a good compatibility, two reactive agents, maleic anhydride (MA)/peroxide and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), were selected and compared. The mechanical properties, morphology, and Molau test of the blends were investigated. The compatibility of PBS/starch blends was improved by both reactive agents at the suitable plasticizer loading (glycerol 10 wt% of starch). It was demonstrated that increasing mechanical properties resulted in good adhesion of PBS/starch interface and… More >

  • Open Access

    Synthesis of Methyl Lactate from Glycerol Using Sn-Beta Zeolite

    Wenjie Dong, Chenlu Wang, Minyan Gu, Long Yang, Zheng Shen*, Yalei Zhang*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, Suppl.1, pp. 22-30, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634126

    Abstract Lactic acid can not only be used to produce multiple chemicals, but can also be the building block for biodegradable and biocompatible polylactic acid identified as a renewable resource. As a by-product in biodiesel production, the glycerol yield increases with a rapid expansion of biodiesel. However, in the chemical and environmental fields it is still a great challenge to produce lactic acid or methyl lactate from glycerol. Herein, Sn-Beta zeolite was prepared through solid-state ion exchange (Sn-Beta SSIE) and was tested for base-free one-pot catalytic selective oxidation of glycerol into methyl lactate in methanol. The results showed that a maximum… More >

  • Open Access


    Miscibility of Poly(hydroxybutyrate)/Poly(vinyl alcohol) Melt Blends Plasticized With Glycerol

    Deliane da Silva Cabral, Antonio José Felix Car

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.4, pp. 325-333, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.01794

    Abstract Poly(hydroxybutyrate)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PHB/PVA) blends plasticized with glycerol were prepared by melt blending of PHB and glycerol plasticized PVA. The PHB/PVA-glycerol compositions were 90:10, 75:25 and 50:50 w/w, being the concentration of glycerol in the PVA mixture of 10 wt %. The blends were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, dynamic-mechanical thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscope of the fragile fractured surface. The results showed one single phase blend, indicating miscibility corroborated by the presence of a single glass transition temperature. The blending method proved to be an efficient way to tune PHB properties keeping its biodegradable nature since both PVA and glycerol… More >

  • Open Access


    Rheological Studies on Glycerol Plasticized Gelatin and Its Blends with Epoxidized Soybean Oil

    E. M. Ciannamea1,*, L. A. Castillo2,3, R. A. Ruseckaite1, S. E. Barbosa2,3

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.1, pp. 21-30, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.00043

    Abstract Blends of gelatin (Ge) plasticized with varying amounts of glycerol (Gly), buffer solution pH 10 and epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) to enhance hydrophobicity were prepared by mixing and injection-molding. Blends were characterized by rheological tests and microscopy to select optimal conditions for scaling up their processing. The effect of each component on rheological response was analyzed using parallel plate geometry. Coating of gelatin specimens with PDMS during rheological tests led to reliable and reproducible results since water evaporation was prevented. A gradual increment in ESO concentration led to blends with increased degree of phase separation, as evidenced by optical and… More >

  • Open Access


    Biobased Aromatic-Aliphatic Polyols by Thiol-Ene Reactions of Propoxylated Mercaptanized Cardanol

    Maha L. Shrestha1,2,*, Mihail Ionescu1, Xianmei Wan1, Thomas Upshaw3

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.6, pp. 630-641, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2018.634106

    Abstract Aromatic-aliphatic polyols were obtained previously from the thiol-ene reactions of propoxylated cardanol with hydroxyalkyl mercaptans; these aromatic-aliphatic polyols were then utilized in the preparation of rigid polyurethane foams with excellent properties. The current work describes a variant of cardanol polyol synthesis by thiol-ene reactions in three steps. The first step is propoxylation of cardanol by reacting cardanol with propylene oxide; the second step is mercaptanization of propoxylated cardanol by reacting double bonds with hydrogen sulfide; and the third step involves the addition of the thiol groups of mercaptanized propoxylated cardanol to the double bonds of allyl alcohol, glycerol-1-allyl ether, and… More >

  • Open Access


    Biobased Aromatic-Aliphatic Polyols from Cardanol by Photochemical Thiol-ene Reaction

    Maha L. Shrestha1, 2,*, Mihail Ionescu1, Xianmei Wan1, Zoran S. Petrović1

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.5, pp. 504-516, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634187

    Abstract Biobased aromatic-aliphatic polyols were previously synthesized from a thermal thiol-ene reaction of propoxylated cardanol with 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) in the presence of azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as a radical initiator. Cardanol used for this purpose was obtained as a dark-brown liquid (Gardner Color Reference ∼18). The photochemical thiol-ene reaction can also be used to prepare aromatic-aliphatic polyols by employing cardanol. Via the photochemical thiol-ene reaction, 2-mercaptoethanol was added successfully to C=C double bond of cardanol, suggesting that phenolic group may not play an inhibitory role in the radical thiol-ene reaction. However, we preferred to alkoxylate the phenolic hydroxyl group of cardanol, which is… More >

  • Open Access


    Production of Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Bacillus megaterium DSM 32 from Residual Glycerol of the Bioenergy Industry

    Enzo Alvarado-Cordero1, Gabriela Montes de Oca-Vásquez2, Reinaldo Pereira-Reyes2, José Vega-Baudrit2, Marianelly Esquivel-Alfaro1*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.3-4, pp. 323-331, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634123

    Abstract Biodegradable polymers from renewable resources are generating growing interest in the plastic industry because they have properties similar to synthetic polymers. Polyhydroxyalkanoates, mainly polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), have mechanical and physicochemical properties very similar to their synthetic counterparts. This work explores the use of residual glycerol from the bioenergy industry for the production of PHB by Bacillus megaterium DSM 32. The glycerol works as a source of carbon and energy. Raw glycerol was purified with sulfuric acid in order to neutralize saponified fatty acids. The purification process generated three different phases. One of the phases was the glycerol-rich layer; this layer was… More >

  • Open Access


    Polyol Preparation by Liquefaction of Technical Lignins in Crude Glycerol

    Louis C. Muller1*, Sanette Marx1, Hermanus C.M. Vosloo2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.1, pp. 67-80, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2016.634130

    Abstract This work reports a study of polyol synthesis through liquefaction of technical lignins in crude glycerol by means of 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy. The polyols are intended for preparation of polyurethane foam; thus, it is important to know how different lignin types as well as crude glycerol influence and contribute to the final polyol hydroxyl contents. Polyols prepared from organosolv lignin, kraft lignin and lignosulphonate had hydroxyl numbers suitable for rigid foam of 435, 515 and 529 mgKOH/g, respectively. The polyols differed in composition with glycerol, showing significant variation. During liquefaction the glycerol content was mostly reduced through bonding… More >

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