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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Machine Learning Empowered Security and Privacy Architecture for IoT Networks with the Integration of Blockchain

    Sohaib Latif1,*, M. Saad Bin Ilyas1, Azhar Imran2, Hamad Ali Abosaq3, Abdulaziz Alzubaidi4, Vincent Karovič Jr.5

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.39, No.2, pp. 353-379, 2024, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2024.047080

    Abstract The Internet of Things (IoT) is growing rapidly and impacting almost every aspect of our lives, from wearables and healthcare to security, traffic management, and fleet management systems. This has generated massive volumes of data and security, and data privacy risks are increasing with the advancement of technology and network connections. Traditional access control solutions are inadequate for establishing access control in IoT systems to provide data protection owing to their vulnerability to single-point OF failure. Additionally, conventional privacy preservation methods have high latency costs and overhead for resource-constrained devices. Previous machine learning approaches were also unable to detect denial-of-service… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Framework for Driver Drowsiness Monitoring Using a Convolutional Neural Network and the Internet of Things

    Muhamad Irsan1,2,*, Rosilah Hassan2, Anwar Hassan Ibrahim3, Mohamad Khatim Hasan2, Meng Chun Lam2, Wan Mohd Hirwani Wan Hussain4

    Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, Vol.39, No.2, pp. 157-174, 2024, DOI:10.32604/iasc.2024.042193

    Abstract One of the major causes of road accidents is sleepy drivers. Such accidents typically result in fatalities and financial losses and disadvantage other road users. Numerous studies have been conducted to identify the driver’s sleepiness and integrate it into a warning system. Most studies have examined how the mouth and eyelids move. However, this limits the system’s ability to identify drowsiness traits. Therefore, this study designed an Accident Detection Framework (RPK) that could be used to reduce road accidents due to sleepiness and detect the location of accidents. The drowsiness detection model used three facial parameters: Yawning, closed eyes (blinking),… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    DNBP-CCA: A Novel Approach to Enhancing Heterogeneous Data Traffic and Reliable Data Transmission for Body Area Network

    Abdulwadood Alawadhi1,*, Mohd. Hasbullah Omar1, Abdullah Almogahed2, Noradila Nordin3, Salman A. Alqahtani4, Atif M. Alamri5

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.2, pp. 2851-2878, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.050154

    Abstract The increased adoption of Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) technologies has resulted in the widespread use of Body Area Networks (BANs) in medical and non-medical domains. However, the performance of IEEE 802.15.4-based BANs is impacted by challenges related to heterogeneous data traffic requirements among nodes, including contention during finite backoff periods, association delays, and traffic channel access through clear channel assessment (CCA) algorithms. These challenges lead to increased packet collisions, queuing delays, retransmissions, and the neglect of critical traffic, thereby hindering performance indicators such as throughput, packet delivery ratio, packet drop rate, and packet delay. Therefore, we propose Dynamic Next… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    SCIRD: Revealing Infection of Malicious Software in Edge Computing-Enabled IoT Networks

    Jiehao Ye, Wen Cheng, Xiaolong Liu, Wenyi Zhu, Xuan’ang Wu, Shigen Shen*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.2, pp. 2743-2769, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.049985

    Abstract The Internet of Things (IoT) has characteristics such as node mobility, node heterogeneity, link heterogeneity, and topology heterogeneity. In the face of the IoT characteristics and the explosive growth of IoT nodes, which brings about large-scale data processing requirements, edge computing architecture has become an emerging network architecture to support IoT applications due to its ability to provide powerful computing capabilities and good service functions. However, the defense mechanism of Edge Computing-enabled IoT Nodes (ECIoTNs) is still weak due to their limited resources, so that they are susceptible to malicious software spread, which can compromise data confidentiality and network service… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Federated Learning on Internet of Things: Extensive and Systematic Review

    Meenakshi Aggarwal1, Vikas Khullar1, Sunita Rani2, Thomas André Prola3,4,5, Shyama Barna Bhattacharjee6, Sarowar Morshed Shawon7, Nitin Goyal8,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.2, pp. 1795-1834, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.049846

    Abstract The proliferation of IoT devices requires innovative approaches to gaining insights while preserving privacy and resources amid unprecedented data generation. However, FL development for IoT is still in its infancy and needs to be explored in various areas to understand the key challenges for deployment in real-world scenarios. The paper systematically reviewed the available literature using the PRISMA guiding principle. The study aims to provide a detailed overview of the increasing use of FL in IoT networks, including the architecture and challenges. A systematic review approach is used to collect, categorize and analyze FL-IoT-based articles. A search was performed in… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    MAIPFE: An Efficient Multimodal Approach Integrating Pre-Emptive Analysis, Personalized Feature Selection, and Explainable AI

    Moshe Dayan Sirapangi1, S. Gopikrishnan1,*

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.2, pp. 2229-2251, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.047438

    Abstract Medical Internet of Things (IoT) devices are becoming more and more common in healthcare. This has created a huge need for advanced predictive health modeling strategies that can make good use of the growing amount of multimodal data to find potential health risks early and help individuals in a personalized way. Existing methods, while useful, have limitations in predictive accuracy, delay, personalization, and user interpretability, requiring a more comprehensive and efficient approach to harness modern medical IoT devices. MAIPFE is a multimodal approach integrating pre-emptive analysis, personalized feature selection, and explainable AI for real-time health monitoring and disease detection. By… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Design Pattern and Challenges of Federated Learning with Applications in Industrial Control System

    Hina Batool1, Jiuyun Xu1,*, Ateeq Ur Rehman2, Habib Hamam3,4,5,6

    Journal on Artificial Intelligence, Vol.6, pp. 105-128, 2024, DOI:10.32604/jai.2024.049912

    Abstract Federated Learning (FL) appeared as an encouraging approach for handling decentralized data. Creating a FL system needs both machine learning (ML) knowledge and thinking about how to design system software. Researchers have focused a lot on the ML side of FL, but have not paid enough attention to designing the software architecture. So, in this survey, a set of design patterns is described to tackle the design issues. Design patterns are like reusable solutions for common problems that come up when designing software architecture. This paper focuses on (1) design patterns such as architectures, frameworks, client selection protocols, personalization techniques,… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Recent Developments in Authentication Schemes Used in Machine-Type Communication Devices in Machine-to-Machine Communication: Issues and Challenges

    Shafi Ullah1, Sibghat Ullah Bazai1,*, Mohammad Imran2, Qazi Mudassar Ilyas3,*, Abid Mehmood4, Muhammad Asim Saleem5, Muhmmad Aasim Rafique3, Arsalan Haider6, Ilyas Khan7, Sajid Iqbal3, Yonis Gulzar4, Kauser Hameed3

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.1, pp. 93-115, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.048796

    Abstract Machine-to-machine (M2M) communication plays a fundamental role in autonomous IoT (Internet of Things)-based infrastructure, a vital part of the fourth industrial revolution. Machine-type communication devices (MTCDs) regularly share extensive data without human intervention while making all types of decisions. These decisions may involve controlling sensitive ventilation systems maintaining uniform temperature, live heartbeat monitoring, and several different alert systems. Many of these devices simultaneously share data to form an automated system. The data shared between machine-type communication devices (MTCDs) is prone to risk due to limited computational power, internal memory, and energy capacity. Therefore, securing the data and devices becomes challenging… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Internet of Things Authentication Protocols: Comparative Study

    Souhayla Dargaoui1, Mourade Azrour1,*, Ahmad El Allaoui1, Azidine Guezzaz2, Abdulatif Alabdulatif3, Abdullah Alnajim4

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.1, pp. 65-91, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.047625

    Abstract Nowadays, devices are connected across all areas, from intelligent buildings and smart cities to Industry 4.0 and smart healthcare. With the exponential growth of Internet of Things usage in our world, IoT security is still the biggest challenge for its deployment. The main goal of IoT security is to ensure the accessibility of services provided by an IoT environment, protect privacy, and confidentiality, and guarantee the safety of IoT users, infrastructures, data, and devices. Authentication, as the first line of defense against security threats, becomes the priority of everyone. It can either grant or deny users access to resources according… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Ingenious IoT Based Crop Prediction System Using ML and EL

    Shabana Ramzan1, Yazeed Yasin Ghadi2, Hanan Aljuaid3, Aqsa Mahmood1,*, Basharat Ali4

    CMC-Computers, Materials & Continua, Vol.79, No.1, pp. 183-199, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmc.2024.047603

    Abstract Traditional farming procedures are time-consuming and expensive as based on manual labor. Farmers have no proper knowledge to select which crop is suitable to grow according to the environmental factors and soil characteristics. This is the main reason for the low yield of crops and the economic crisis in the agricultural sector of the different countries. The use of modern technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), machine learning, and ensemble learning can facilitate farmers to observe different factors such as soil electrical conductivity (EC), and environmental factors like temperature to improve crop yield. These parameters play a vital… More >

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