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  • Open Access


    The Analysis of the Correlation between SPT and CPT Based on CNN-GA and Liquefaction Discrimination Research

    Ruihan Bai1, Feng Shen2,*, Zihao Zhao3, Zhiping Zhang4, Qisi Yu4

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.138, No.2, pp. 1159-1182, 2024, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2023.029562

    Abstract The objective of this study is to investigate the methods for soil liquefaction discrimination. Typically, predicting soil liquefaction potential involves conducting the standard penetration test (SPT), which requires field testing and can be time-consuming and labor-intensive. In contrast, the cone penetration test (CPT) provides a more convenient method and offers detailed and continuous information about soil layers. In this study, the feature matrix based on CPT data is proposed to predict the standard penetration test blow count N. The feature matrix comprises the CPT characteristic parameters at specific depths, such as tip resistance qc, sleeve resistance fs,… More >

  • Open Access



    Rongge Xiaoa,*, Yanwei Zhanga , Xu Gaob , Hongping Yuc , Wangying Weia

    Frontiers in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol.15, pp. 1-8, 2020, DOI:10.5098/hmt.15.22

    Abstract In order to improve DMR (double mixed refrigerant) liquefaction process and reduce operation cost of natural gas liquefaction plant, a four-stage DMR process optimization simulation calculation model was established through Aspen Hysys v8.4 and the purpose of the optimization model is achieved by using the segmented compression process in this paper. The minimum energy consumption and the highest exergy efficiency were used as the objective functions. By using the optimizer in HYSYS, the process parameters and ingredient proportion of the mixed refrigerant in the fourstage DMR process was optimized, and the best process parameters and More >

  • Open Access


    Thermodynamic Analysis and Optimization of the C3/MRC Liquefaction Process

    Guisheng Wang*

    Energy Engineering, Vol.120, No.6, pp. 1503-1514, 2023, DOI:10.32604/ee.2023.027416

    Abstract In the natural gas liquefaction process, the mixed refrigerant natural gas liquefaction process is widely used in LNG liquefaction plants because of its advantages of low energy consumption. This paper focuses on the influences of important parameters in the C3/MRC liquefaction process, that is, the comparison between propane precooling temperature and the number of moles of methane in mixed refrigerant, power consumption and loss. In addition, the total process was optimized with the optimizer and manual adjustment in HYSYS software to minimize the total power consumption. The results show that with increasing propane precooling temperature, More >

  • Open Access


    Dynamic Behaviour of Pond Ash Mixed with Coir and Crumb Rubber

    Ashish Malik*, Sanjay Kumar Singh

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.3, pp. 1271-1291, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.023084

    Abstract An experimental program was conducted to determine the dynamic properties of pond ash (PA) and pond ash mixed with admixtures like crumb rubber (CR) and coir fiber (CF) which are wastes of different industries. Additives CR and CF were mixed separately with pond ash in a percentage ranging from 0%–20% at an interval of 5% and 0%–2% at an interval of 0.5% by weight of pond ash, respectively. Dynamic properties (Shear modulus, Number of cycles to initiate liquefaction, Degradation index and Damping ratio) for pond ash mixes were determined using strain-controlled cyclic tri-axial apparatus. The… More >

  • Open Access


    Seismic Liquefaction Resistance Based on Strain Energy Concept Considering Fine Content Value Effect and Performance Parametric Sensitivity Analysis

    Nima Pirhadi1, Xusheng Wan1, Jianguo Lu1, Jilei Hu2,3,*, Mahmood Ahmad4,5, Farzaneh Tahmoorian6

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.135, No.1, pp. 733-754, 2023, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2022.022207

    Abstract Liquefaction is one of the most destructive phenomena caused by earthquakes, which has been studied in the issues of potential, triggering and hazard analysis. The strain energy approach is a common method to investigate liquefaction potential. In this study, two Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models were developed to estimate the liquefaction resistance of sandy soil based on the capacity strain energy concept (W) by using laboratory test data. A large database was collected from the literature. One group of the dataset was utilized for validating the process in order to prevent overtraining the presented model. To… More >

  • Open Access


    Effect of Refrigerant on the Performance of a C3/MRC Liquefaction Process

    Xiao Wu*, Zhaoting Wang, Longfei Dong, Yanping Xin, Tianshu Yu

    FDMP-Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, Vol.19, No.1, pp. 25-36, 2023, DOI:10.32604/fdmp.2023.020953

    Abstract The Mixed Refrigerant (MR) component is an important factor influencing the performances of natural gas liquefaction processes. However, there is a lack of systematic research about the utilization of propane pre-cooled (C3/MRC). In this paper, this mixed refrigerant cycle liquefaction process is simulated using the HYSYS software and the main influential parameters involved in the process are varied to analyze their influence on the liquefaction rate and power consumption. The results show that an effective way for lowering the power consumption of the compressor consists of reducing the flow through the compressor through optimization of More >

  • Open Access


    A Critical Analysis of Natural Gas Liquefaction Technology

    Xiao Wu1,*, Zhaoting Wang1, Mei Dong2, Longfei Dong1, Quan Ge1

    FDMP-Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, Vol.18, No.1, pp. 145-158, 2022, DOI:10.32604/fdmp.2022.018227

    Abstract Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is an important energy source and occupies an important proportion in natural gas consumption, therefore, the selection of appropriate liquefaction processes and related optimization should be seen as subjects of great importance. Accordingly, in the present review, we provide a comparative and critical analysis of the current status of natural gas liquefaction technology through examination of the advantages and disadvantages associated with three natural gas liquefaction processes (namely, the cascade liquefaction cycle, the expander-based cycle and the mixed refrigerant cycle). It is shown that the energy consumption related to the cascade More >

  • Open Access


    Liquefaction of Kraft Lignin at Atmospheric Pressure

    Silvia Helena Fuentes da Silva1, Patricia Soares Bilhalva dos Santos2, Darci Alberto Gatto3, Maria Angeles Andres1, Itziar Egüés1,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.6, pp. 527-534, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.04291

    Abstract Kraft lignin was liquefied using polyethylene glycol #400 (PEG) and glycerol (G) in a weight ratio of 80/20 (w/w) and sulphuric acid (SA) as catalyst under atmospheric pressure at 160ºC. The three independent variables: reaction time (60, 80 and 100 min), percentage of lignin (15, 20 and 25%, w/w), and catalyst concentration (0, 3 and 6%, w/w), were varied resulting in 27 experimental runs. The effect of these reaction conditions on the properties of the polyols was evaluated. The statistical analysis showed that only “the percentage of lignin” did not influence the properties of the More >

  • Open Access


    Polyol Preparation by Liquefaction of Technical Lignins in Crude Glycerol

    Louis C. Muller1*, Sanette Marx1, Hermanus C.M. Vosloo2

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.1, pp. 67-80, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2016.634130

    Abstract This work reports a study of polyol synthesis through liquefaction of technical lignins in crude glycerol by means of 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy. The polyols are intended for preparation of polyurethane foam; thus, it is important to know how different lignin types as well as crude glycerol influence and contribute to the final polyol hydroxyl contents. Polyols prepared from organosolv lignin, kraft lignin and lignosulphonate had hydroxyl numbers suitable for rigid foam of 435, 515 and 529 mgKOH/g, respectively. The polyols differed in composition with glycerol, showing significant variation. During liquefaction the glycerol content More >

  • Open Access


    OpenSees Three-Dimensional Computational Modeling of Ground-Structure Systems and Liquefaction Scenarios

    Zhijian Qiu1, Jinchi Lu1, Ahmed Elgamal1,*, Lei Su2, Ning Wang3, Abdullah Almutairi1

    CMES-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.120, No.3, pp. 629-656, 2019, DOI:10.32604/cmes.2019.05759

    Abstract The OpenSees computational platform has allowed unprecedented opportunities for conducting seismic nonlinear soil-structure interaction simulations. On the geotechnical side, capabilities such as coupled solid-fluid formulations and nonlinear incremental-plasticity approaches allow for representation of the involved dynamic/seismic responses. This paper presents recent research that facilitated such endeavors in terms of response of ground-foundation-structure systems using advanced material modeling techniques and high-performance computing resources. Representative numerical results are shown for large-scale soil-structure systems, and ground modification liquefaction countermeasures. In addition, graphical user interface enabling tools for routine usage of such 3D simulation environments are presented, as an More >

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