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  • Open Access


    Characterization and Selection of Microcrystalline Cellulose from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches for Strengthening Hydrogel Films

    Susi Susi1,2,*, Makhmudun Ainuri3,*, Wagiman Wagiman3, Mohammad Affan Fajar Falah3

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.12, No.3, pp. 513-537, 2024, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2024.045586

    Abstract Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is one of the cellulose derivatives produced as a result of the depolymerization of a part of cellulose to achieve high crystallinity. When implemented in other polymers, high crystallinity correlates with greater strength and stiffnes, but it can reduce the water-holding capacity. The acid concentration and hydrolysis time will affect the acquisition of crystallinity and water absorption capacity, both of which have significance as properties of hydrogel filler. The study aimed to evaluate the properties and select the MCC generated from varying the proportion of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and the appropriate hydrolysis time as a filler for… More > Graphic Abstract

    Characterization and Selection of Microcrystalline Cellulose from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches for Strengthening Hydrogel Films

  • Open Access


    Effect of N,N-Dimethylacetamide/lithium chloride modified microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) on the processing behaviour and properties of celluloserubber (NBR and EPDM) composites


    Journal of Polymer Materials, Vol.38, No.1-2, pp. 89-100, 2021, DOI:10.32381/JPM.2021.38.1-2.8

    Abstract Rubber composites of nitrile (NBR) and Ethylene-Propylene-Diene (EPDM) containing unmodified and modified microcrystalline cellulose(MCC) are evaluated for their processing behaviour. The used modified MCC (T-MCC) was treated by N,N-dimethylacetamide/lithium chloride (DMAc/ LiCl).ATR-FTIR spectra of NBR-MCC composites have indicated N-H stretching and bending vibrations and confirmed interactions between nitrile rubber and MCC. AFM studies have indicated that the average roughness of NBR-T-MCC was significantly reduced when compared to that of NBR-untreated MCC. Important processing parameters such as scorch time and cure time are found to decrease significantly for both NBR and EPDM composites withT-MCC. Mechanical properties of these composites are found… More >

  • Open Access


    Improvement in the Performance of the Polylactic Acid Composites by Using Deep Eutectic Solvent Treated Pulp Fiber

    Lei Tan, Liangxian Liu, Chaodong Liu, Weihong Wang*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.11, pp. 1897-1911, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.016418

    Abstract As the most favorable alternative to petroleum-based polymers, polylactic acid (PLA) which is the most promising degradable polymer has attracted increasing attention. However, the addition of cellulose to improve its strength often results in a reduction in its toughness. In this work, microscale cellulose is first prepared from pulp fibers by using a deep eutectic solvent, and then is used as the reinforcement of PLA. A microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)/PLA sheet with uniform texture is obtained by the solution mixing, melt blending, hot-pressing and cold-pressing process. The effects of MCC on the crystallization, thermal stability and mechanical properties of the PLA… More >

  • Open Access


    Preliminary Optimization and Kinetics of SnCl2-HCl Catalyzed Hydrothermal Conversion of Microcrystalline Cellulose to Levulinic Acid

    Dexby de Guzman, Rizalinda de Leon*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.1, pp. 145-162, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.011646

    Abstract Levulinic acid (LA) is a platform biorefinery chemical from biomass which can be converted to green solvents, plasticizers, polymer precursors, bio-based cleaning agents, fuels and fuel additives. This study assessed the potential of SnCl2-based mixed acid systems as catalyst in the hydrothermal conversion of microcrystalline cellulose to levulinic acid. Maximum LA yield of 36.2 mol% was achieved using 0.2 M SnCl2 concentration at test conditions of 3 h, 180°C and 1% w/v cellulose loading. To reduce precipitate formation and further improve LA yield, the strategy employed was to combine SnCl2 (a Lewis acid) with conventional mineral acids (Bronsted acids). Evaluation… More >

  • Open Access


    The Effects of DOPO-g-ITA Modified Microcrystalline Cellulose on the Properites of Composite Phenolic Foams

    Yufeng Ma1, Xuanang Gong1, Puyou Jia2,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.1, pp. 45-55, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.08621

    Abstract In order to improve the comprehensive performance of phenolic foam, 9, 10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) was grafted with itaconic acid (ITA) (DOPO-g-ITA) to modify microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). DOPO-g-ITA modified MCC (DIMMCC) was used to prepare composite phenolic foam (DCPF). The structures of DIMMCC were verified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The microstructure and crystalline property were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. Compared with MCC, the crystallinity of DIMMCC was dramatically decreased, but the diffraction peak positions were unchanged. Thermal stability was decreased, and Ti decreased by 45.0°C. The residual carbon (600°C) was increased by 22.34%.… More >

  • Open Access


    Development of Biocomposites of MCC Extracted From Non-Wood Sources

    T. Dipin1, T. V. Jinitha1, E. Purushothaman1,*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.11, pp. 1109-1119, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.07636

    Abstract The present work mainly focuses on the estimation of various components and the extraction of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) from non- wood sources like Country Almond/Badam shell through acid hydrolysis. This hydrolyzed MCC was successfully used as reinforcement for development of biocomposites. Country Almond/Badam trees are found all over Kerala, India and they give nuts once in a year. Usually the nut shells are discarded and are becoming one of the sources of agricultural waste. During this investigation various components were isolated from the Country Almond shells and they were characterised using different spectral and analytical techniques thereby the composition of… More >

  • Open Access


    Biocomposite Films of Polylactic Acid Reinforced with Microcrystalline Cellulose from Pineapple Leaf Fibers

    Galia Moreno, Karla Ramirez, Marianelly Esquivel, Guillermo Jimenez*

    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.1, pp. 9-20, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.00017

    Abstract Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composite films reinforced with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) extracted from pineapple leaf fibers (PALF) were prepared by a solution casting procedure. In an attempt to improve the interaction between PLA and cellulose, two approaches were adopted; first, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was used as a surfactant, and second, the cellulosic fibers were pre-treated using tert-butanol (TBA). Lignocellulosic and cellulosic substrates were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), and thermogravimetrical analysis (TGA). MCC from PALF showed good thermal stability, left few residues after decomposing, and exhibited high crystallinity index. Mechanical, thermal and thermomechanical properties of the… More >

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