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Characterization and Selection of Microcrystalline Cellulose from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches for Strengthening Hydrogel Films

Susi Susi1,2,*, Makhmudun Ainuri3,*, Wagiman Wagiman3, Mohammad Affan Fajar Falah3

1 Department of Agroindustrial Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Jl A Yani Km 36, Banjarbaru, South Kalimantan, 70714, Indonesia
2 Doctoral Programme of Agroindustrial Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia
3 Department of Agroindustrial Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia

* Corresponding Authors: Susi Susi. Email: email; Makhmudun Ainuri. Email: email

(This article belongs to the Special Issue: From Municipal Solid Waste to Renewable Materials for Sustainable Application)

Journal of Renewable Materials 2024, 12(3), 513-537. https://doi.org/10.32604/jrm.2024.045586

Abstract

Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is one of the cellulose derivatives produced as a result of the depolymerization of a part of cellulose to achieve high crystallinity. When implemented in other polymers, high crystallinity correlates with greater strength and stiffnes, but it can reduce the water-holding capacity. The acid concentration and hydrolysis time will affect the acquisition of crystallinity and water absorption capacity, both of which have significance as properties of hydrogel filler. The study aimed to evaluate the properties and select the MCC generated from varying the proportion of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and the appropriate hydrolysis time as a filler for film hydrogel. MCC was produced by hydrolyzing cellulose of oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) with the HCl solution at varied concentrations and periods. The results show that the longer hydrolysis times and higher HCl concentrations increase crystallinity and density while lowering yield and water absorption. The extensive acid hydrolysis reduces the amorphous area significantly, allowing the depolymerization to occur and extend the crystalline area. The morphological properties of the MCC, which are smaller but compact, indicate the presence of disintegrating and diminishing structures. A 2.5 N HCl concentration and a 45-min hydrolysis time succeed in sufficient crystallinity as well as maintaining good water absorption capacity. The treatment produced MCC with absorption capacity of 4.03 ± 0.26 g/g, swelling capacity of 5.03 ± 0.26 g/g, loss on drying of 1.44% ± 0.36, bulk and tapped density of 0.27 ± 0.031 g/cm3 and 0.3 ± 0.006 g/cm3, respectively, with a crystallinity index of 88.89% ± 4.76 and a crystallite size of 4.23 ± 0.70 nm. The MCC generated could potentially be utilized as a hydrogel film filler, since a given proportion will be able to maintain the strength of the hydrogel, not readily dissolve but absorb water significantly.

Graphical Abstract

Characterization and Selection of Microcrystalline Cellulose from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches for Strengthening Hydrogel Films

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Cite This Article

APA Style
Susi, S., Ainuri, M., Wagiman, W., Falah, M.A.F. (2024). Characterization and selection of microcrystalline cellulose from oil palm empty fruit bunches for strengthening hydrogel films. Journal of Renewable Materials, 12(3), 513-537. https://doi.org/10.32604/jrm.2024.045586
Vancouver Style
Susi S, Ainuri M, Wagiman W, Falah MAF. Characterization and selection of microcrystalline cellulose from oil palm empty fruit bunches for strengthening hydrogel films. J Renew Mater. 2024;12(3):513-537 https://doi.org/10.32604/jrm.2024.045586
IEEE Style
S. Susi, M. Ainuri, W. Wagiman, and M.A.F. Falah "Characterization and Selection of Microcrystalline Cellulose from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches for Strengthening Hydrogel Films," J. Renew. Mater., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 513-537. 2024. https://doi.org/10.32604/jrm.2024.045586



cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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