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Carrageenan (CA) is a kind of hydrophilic polysaccharide extracted from red algae. In this paper, a very small amount of Ba2+ was added to carrageenan spinning solution, and the ordered distribution of CA molecular chains in the spinning solution was realized through pre-crosslinking, and the properties of carrageenan fibers prepared by wet spinning were significantly improved.

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  • Open AccessOpen Access

    REVIEW

    A Review on Sources, Extractions and Analysis Methods of a Sustainable Biomaterial: Tannins

    Antonio Pizzi1,*, Marie-Pierre Laborie2,3, Zeki Candan4
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.12, No.3, pp. 397-425, 2024, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.046074
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Renewable and Biosourced Adhesives-2023)
    Abstract Condensed and hydrolysable tannins are non-toxic natural polyphenols that are a commercial commodity industrialized for tanning hides to obtain leather and for a growing number of other industrial applications mainly to substitute petroleum-based products. They are a definite class of sustainable materials of the forestry industry. They have been in operation for hundreds of years to manufacture leather and now for a growing number of applications in a variety of other industries, such as wood adhesives, metal coating, pharmaceutical/medical applications and several others. This review presents the main sources, either already or potentially commercial of More >

    Graphic Abstract

    A Review on Sources, Extractions and Analysis Methods of a Sustainable Biomaterial: Tannins

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Carrageenan Fiber Prepared by a New Process Route of Ba2+ Ion Pre-Crosslinking in the Spinning Solution

    Liting Jia1, Xiao Han1, Cuixia Qiao2, Gang Zhao2, Yanzhi Xia1, Zhixin Xue1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.12, No.3, pp. 427-441, 2024, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.044310
    Abstract Ba2+ pre-crosslinked carrageenan fiber (Ba/CAF) was prepared by adding a small amount of Ba2+ to the carrageenan (CA) solution as the spinning solution. Ba/CAF-n/A, Ba/CAF-n/B and Ba/CAF-n/C were prepared with ethanol solution (combine A), high concentration BaCl2 solution (combine B) and low concentration BaCl2 solution (combine C), as coagulation bath and stretch bath, respectively. The combination of coagulation bath and stretch bath suitable for Ba2+ pre-crosslinking wet spinning was screened. The results showed that Ba2+ can induce the birefringence of the CA molecular chain, and the Ba2+ pre-crosslinking effect is the best when the CA mass fraction is 8.0 More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Carrageenan Fiber Prepared by a New Process Route of Ba<sup>2+</sup> Ion Pre-Crosslinking in the Spinning Solution

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Unraveling the Rheology of Nanocellulose Aqueous Suspensions: A Comprehensive Study on Biomass-Derived Nanofibrillated Cellulose

    Mingyue Miao1,#, Fei Wang1,#, Qing Li1, Longchen Tao1, Chenchen Dai1, Yu Liu1, Shujuan Han1, Wenshuai Chen1,*, Ping Lu2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.12, No.3, pp. 443-455, 2024, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.030412
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Nanocellulose and Nanocellulose-Derived Functional Materials-2021)
    Abstract The rheological properties of nanocellulose aqueous suspensions play a critical role in the development of nanocellulose-based bulk materials. High-crystalline, high-aspect ratio, and slender nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) were extracted from four biomass resources. The cellulose nanofibrils and nanofibril bundles formed inter-connected networks in the NFC aqueous suspensions. The storage moduli of the suspensions with different concentrations were higher than their corresponding loss moduli. As the concentration increased, the storage and loss modulus of NFC dispersion increased. When the shear rate increased to a certain value, there were differences in the changing trend of the rheological behavior More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Unraveling the Rheology of Nanocellulose Aqueous Suspensions: A Comprehensive Study on Biomass-Derived Nanofibrillated Cellulose

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    REVIEW

    Overview of Jute Fibre as Thermoplastic Matrix Polymer Reinforcement

    Tezara Cionita1,*, Mohammad Hazim Mohamad Hamdan2, Januar Parlaungan Siregar3,4,*, Deni Fajar Fitriyana5, Ramli Junid6, Wong Ling Shing7, Jamiluddin Jaafar8, Agustinus Purna Irawan9, Teuku Rihayat10, Rifky Ismail11, Athanasius Priharyoto Bayuseno11, Emilianus Jehadus12
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.12, No.3, pp. 457-483, 2024, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2024.045814
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Natural Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites: Processing, Manufacturing, Characterizations and Environmentally Friendly Applications)
    Abstract Recent decades have seen a substantial increase in interest in research on natural fibres that is aligned with sustainable development goals (SDGs). Due to their renewable resources and biodegradability, natural fiber-reinforced composites have been investigated as a sustainable alternative to synthetic materials to reduce the usage of hazardous waste and environmental pollution. Among the natural fibre, jute fibre obtained from a bast plant has an increasing trend in the application, especially as a reinforcement material. Numerous research works have been performed on jute fibre with regard to reinforced thermoset and thermoplastic composites. Nevertheless, current demands More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    REVIEW

    Sustainable Biocomposites Materials for Automotive Brake Pad Application: An Overview

    Joseph O. Dirisu1,*, Imhade P. Okokpujie2,3,*, Olufunmilayo O. Joseph1, Sunday O. Oyedepo1, Oluwasegun Falodun4, Lagouge K. Tartibu3, Firdaussi D. Shehu1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.12, No.3, pp. 485-511, 2024, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2024.045188
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Eco-Friendly Waste-Base Materials for Pollution Control Sustainable Technologies)
    Abstract Research into converting waste into viable eco-friendly products has gained global concern. Using natural fibres and pulverized metallic waste becomes necessary to reduce noxious environmental emissions due to indiscriminately occupying the land. This study reviews the literature in the broad area of green composites in search of materials that can be used in automotive brake pads. Materials made by biocomposite, rather than fossil fuels, will be favoured. A database containing the tribo-mechanical performance of numerous potential components for the future green composite was established using the technical details of bio-polymers and natural reinforcements. The development… More >

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    Sustainable Biocomposites Materials for Automotive Brake Pad Application: An Overview

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Characterization and Selection of Microcrystalline Cellulose from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches for Strengthening Hydrogel Films

    Susi Susi1,2,*, Makhmudun Ainuri3,*, Wagiman Wagiman3, Mohammad Affan Fajar Falah3
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.12, No.3, pp. 513-537, 2024, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2024.045586
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: From Municipal Solid Waste to Renewable Materials for Sustainable Application)
    Abstract Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is one of the cellulose derivatives produced as a result of the depolymerization of a part of cellulose to achieve high crystallinity. When implemented in other polymers, high crystallinity correlates with greater strength and stiffnes, but it can reduce the water-holding capacity. The acid concentration and hydrolysis time will affect the acquisition of crystallinity and water absorption capacity, both of which have significance as properties of hydrogel filler. The study aimed to evaluate the properties and select the MCC generated from varying the proportion of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and the appropriate hydrolysis… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Characterization and Selection of Microcrystalline Cellulose from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches for Strengthening Hydrogel Films

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    A Rapid Parameter of Enzyme-Treated Cellulosic Material Revealed by Reducing Sugar Release

    Verônica Távilla Ferreira Silva, Adriane Maria Ferreira Milagres*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.12, No.3, pp. 539-551, 2024, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.045726
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Renewable Materials and Advanced Technologies for Sustainability)
    Abstract This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of enzymes in purifying and reducing the degree of polymerization of cellulose for the production of dissolving pulp. Our goal was to determine the contributions of xylanase (X) and endoglucanase (EG) in the treatment of pulp, specifically by quantifying the formation of soluble and insoluble reducing sugars using the dinitrosalycilic acid (DNS) test. Predominantly, the release of soluble reducing sugars (RSSol) was enhanced after xylanase treatment, while endoglucanase (EG) treatment led to changes in insoluble reducing sugars (RSIns). The maximum synergism was observed for RSIns when a… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    A Rapid Parameter of Enzyme-Treated Cellulosic Material Revealed by Reducing Sugar Release

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF)-Mass Spectrometry and 13C-NMR-Identified New Compounds in Paraberlinia bifoliolata (Ekop-Beli) Bark Tannins

    Liliane Nga1, Benoit Ndiwe1,2, Achille Bernard Biwolé1, Antonio Pizzi3,*, Jean Jalin Eyinga Biwole1, Joseph Zobo Mfomo1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.12, No.3, pp. 553-568, 2024, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.046568
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Special Issue in Celebration of JRM 10 Years)
    Abstract Extracts of plant origin, particularly tannins, are attracting growing interest for the sustainable development of materials in the industrial sector. The discovery of new tannins is therefore necessary. The aim of this work was to contribute to the understanding of the properties of Paraberlinia bifoliolata tannin by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectroscopy MALDI-TOF/MS and Carbon 13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C NMR). The chemical composition of tannin extracted from Paraberlinia bifoliolata bark was determined, as was the mechanical strength of the resin hardened with Acacia nilotica extracts. Yield by successive water extraction was 35%. MALDI-TOF/MS… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Fabrication of UV–Curing Linalool–Polysiloxane Hybrid Films with High Refractive Index and Transparency

    Wenqing Xiao1,#, Lewen Tan1,2,#, Xunjun Chen1,*, Qiaoguang Li1,*, Yunqing Ruan1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.12, No.3, pp. 569-583, 2024, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.046662
    Abstract

    In this article, a series of high refractive indices (1.50–1.53) thiol phenyl polysiloxane (TPS) were synthesized via hydrolytic sol–gel reaction. The Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT–IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (NMR) results showed that TPS conformed to the predicted structures. Natural terpene linalool was exploited as photocrosslinker to fabricate UV–curing linalool–polysiloxane hybrid films (LPH) with TPS via photoinitiated thiol–ene reaction. LPH rapidly cured under UV irradiation at the intensity of 80 mW/cm2 in 30 s, exhibiting good UV–curing properties. The optical transmittance of LPH in the wavelength of 300–800 nm was over 90%, exhibiting good

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  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Bio-Based Rigid Polyurethane Foams for Cryogenic Insulation

    Laima Vevere*, Beatrise Sture, Vladimir Yakushin, Mikelis Kirpluks, Ugis Cabulis
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.12, No.3, pp. 585-602, 2024, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2024.047350
    Abstract Cryogenic insulation material rigid polyurethane (PU) foams were developed using bio-based and recycled feedstock. Polyols obtained from tall oil fatty acids produced as a side stream of wood biomass pulping and recycled polyethylene terephthalate were used to develop rigid PU foam formulations. The 4th generation physical blowing agents with low global warming potential and low ozone depletion potential were used to develop rigid PU foam cryogenic insulation with excellent mechanical and thermal properties. Obtained rigid PU foams had a thermal conductivity coefficient as low as 0.0171 W/m·K and an apparent density of 37–40 kg/m3. The developed… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Bio-Based Rigid Polyurethane Foams for Cryogenic Insulation

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Comparative Analysis of Reaction to Fire and Flammability of Hemp Shives Insulation Boards with Incorporated Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials

    Inga Zotova1,*, Edgars Kirilovs1, Laura Ziemele2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.12, No.3, pp. 603-613, 2024, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2024.047607
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Renewable Materials and Advanced Technologies for Sustainability)
    Abstract Nowadays buildings contain innovative materials, materials from local resources, production surpluses and rapidly renewable natural resources. Phase Change Materials (PCM) are one such group of novel materials which reduce building energy consumption. With the wider availability of microencapsulated PCM, there is an opportunity to develop a new type of insulating materials, combinate PCM with traditional insulation materials for latent heat energy storage. These materials are typically flammable and are located on the interior wall finishing yet there has been no detailed assessment of their fire performance. In this research work prototypes of low-density insulating boards… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Comparative Analysis of Reaction to Fire and Flammability of Hemp Shives Insulation Boards with Incorporated Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Synthesis and Characterization of Phenyl Camellia oleifera Seed Oil Ester Plasticizing PVC

    Wenqing Xiao1,#, Yuhang Liu2,#, Yuxin He1, Qiaoguang Li1,*, Yongquan Li3,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.12, No.3, pp. 615-628, 2024, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.046780
    Abstract Plasticizers are essential additives in the processing of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), with phthalate plasticizers being widely used. However, these conventional plasticizers have been shown to be harmful to human health and environmentally unfriendly, necessitating the exploration of eco-friendly bio-based alternatives. In this study, Camellia oleifera seed oil, a specialty resource in China, was utilized as a raw material and reacted with 4,4′-Methylenebis(N,N-diglycidylaniline) (AG-80) to synthesize Phenyl Camellia seed Oil Ester (PCSOE). PCSOE was employed as a plasticizer to prepare modified PVC films with varying concentrations, with the conventional plasticizer dioctyl phthalate (DOP) serving as a control.… More >

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