Home / Journals / JRM / Vol.9, No.2, 2021
Table of Content
  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Ancient Materials and Substitution Materials Used in Thai Historical Masonry Structure Preservation

    Natthanan Wonganan, Chainarong Athisakul*, Peerasit Mahasuwanchai, Weerachart Tangchirapat, Raktipong Sahamitmongkol, Sutat Leelataviwat
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.2, pp. 179-204, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.013134
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable materials for sustainable development)
    Abstract The historical structures of Thailand are some of the most fascinating ancient sites in Asia. Their architectures reveal past cultures, traditions, knowledge, and expertise. Masonry materials are the major materials used to construct the historical structures in Thailand. One of the essential problem of Thai historical structure preservation is a shortage of engineering properties data for the structural stability assessment. Moreover, the in-depth engineering properties and the suitable substitution materials for Thai historical preservation are rarely found. Therefore, the engineering properties of the ancient masonry materials have to be explored together with the development of suitable substitute materials. This paper… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Study on the Soy Protein-Based Adhesive Cross-Linked by Glyoxal

    Zhigang Wu1,2,#, Jiankun Liang3,#, Hong Lei1,*, Bengang Zhang1, Xuedong Xi1, Lifen Li2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.2, pp. 205-218, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.013655
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable and Biosourced Adhesives)
    Abstract Based on the ESI-MS and 13C-NMR analysis of the forms of glyoxal in acidic and alkaline solutions, the soy-based adhesive cross-linked by glyoxal was prepared in this work. The results showed that glyoxal existed in water in different forms at different pH levels. Under alkaline conditions, glyoxal transformed to glycolate through the intramolecular disproportionation reaction. Under acidic conditions, although some of glyoxal transformed to glycolate as what happened under alkaline conditions, most of glyoxal molecules existed in the form of five- or six-membered cyclic ether structure. No ethylene tetraol or free aldehyde group was actually detected under these conditions. Although… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Bifunctional Brønsted Acidic Deep Eutectic Solvent to Dissolve and Catalyze the Depolymerization of Alkali Lignin

    Lifen Li1, Zhigang Wu1, Xuedong Xi2, Baoyu Liu3, Yan Cao3, Hailong Xu3, Yingcheng Hu4,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.2, pp. 219-235, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.012099
    Abstract Lignin is an abundant renewable macromolecular material in nature, and degradation of lignin to improve its hydroxyl content is the key to its efficient use. Alkali lignin (AL) was treated with Brønsted acidic deep eutectic solvent (DES) based on choline chloride and p-toluenesulfonic acid at mild reaction temperature, the structure of the lignin before and after degradation, as well as the composition of small molecules of lignin were analyzed in order to investigate the chemical structure changes of lignin with DES treatment, and the degradation mechanism of lignin in this acidic DES was elucidated in this work. FTIR and NMR… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Study on Factors Affecting Properties of Foam Glass Made from Waste Glass

    Yang Liu1, Jianjun Xie1,*, Peng Hao1, Ying Shi1, Yonggen Xu2,3, Xiaoqing Ding2,3
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.2, pp. 237-253, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.012228
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable materials for sustainable development)
    Abstract Foam glass is a new green material to make use of waste glass and is popular for its energy-saving and light weight features. The problems in the current study of foam glass is that its properties require improvement to match the growing demands of application specific standards. Properties of foam glass is related to its porous structure, which is affected by various factors. The influence of raw material component, foaming agents and sintering system on the porous structure and properties of foamed glass is studied. Density decreases with the decrease of quartz and barite content. Thermal conductivity is more affected… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Development of a Soil Stabilizer for Road Subgrade Based on Original Phosphogypsum

    Zenghuan Gu1, Aiguo Fang2, Sudong Hua1,*, Qingzhou Zhao2, Lidong Sun2, Fan Xia2, Liying Qian3, Xiaojian Ren3
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.2, pp. 253-268, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.011912
    Abstract The research used industrial by-products original phosphogypsum (PG) as the main raw material, slag (SG) and Portland cement (PC) as auxiliary materials, and the optimal additive amount was determined according to the compressive strength value of the sample. Comprehensively evaluate the water resistance and volume stability of the samples, and determine the best formula for new roadbed stabilized materials. The results showed that when the weight ratio of PG, slag and cement was OPG:SG:PC = 6:3:1, and mixed with 5% micro silica fume (MSF) and 3‰ hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), the sample’s comprehensive performance was the best, specifically, the sample’s… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Numerical Simulation of Urea Based SNCR Process in a Trinal-Sprayed Precalciner

    Yu Liu, Hongtao Kao*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.2, pp. 269-294, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.012015
    Abstract In order to study the combustion characteristics, NOx emission and NH3 slip in a new trinal-sprayed precalciner, the simulations of combustion and aqueous urea solution based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) process were conducted by computational fluid dynamics in this precalciner, the effects of different injection heights, different injection flow rates and stratified injection under different flow rates on SNCR process were studied. The results showed that the flow field was symmetrically distributed in the precalciner, and the flue gas from the rotary kiln formed the recirculation region on both sides of the cone body, which increased the residence time of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Promising Wound Dressing from Regenerated Silk Fibroin Sponge with Sustain-ed Release of Silver Nanoparticles

    Yang Li#, Xiaoying Zha#, Xingliang Xiong, Yan Zhang, Ying Feng, Haojiang Xie, Linqing Zhang, Qifeng Jiang*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.2, pp. 295-310, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.012271
    Abstract A silk fibroin (SF) spongy wound dressing incorporated with silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) was developed for biomedical applications. Ag-NPs were efficiently synthesized in situ via ultra violet (UV) with AgNO3 as precursor and silk fibroin as reducing and protecting agent, respectively. After lyophilization, the formed silk fibroin spongy wound dressing (SFWD) exhibited polyporous morphology and inner lamellae structures, with uniform dispersion of Ag-NPs. The porous structure provided SFWD with the ability to absorb tissue exudatealmost 6 times of its own weight, which could guarantee the sustained release of Ag-NPs. By methanol treatment, SFWD showed much improved mechanical properties and more stable… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Preparation of Activated Carbon from Durian Rind with Difference Activations and Its Optimization

    Pongsert Sriprom1, Warawut Krusong2, Pornsawan Assawasaengrat3,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.2, pp. 311-324, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.012560
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable materials for sustainable development)
    Abstract Durian rind wastes are an important raw material for activated carbon production due to their renewable sources and low-cost materials. The efficiency of increasing surface area and the quantity of oxygen groups on the surface of activated carbon were studied for the preparation of activated carbon. The preparation of activated carbon has been studied with the different methods as follows: activation by acid, activation by base, hydrothermal and activation by acid, and hydrothermal and activation by base. The results showed that hydrothermal and activation by acid had high iodine number which was chosen to determine the optimum condition for activated… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Evaluation of Mechanical and Physical Properties of Pressed Coir Fiber/Epoxy Composite with NaOH and Microwave Treatment of Fiber

    Ilyas Renreng1, Bakri Bakri2,*, Sri Chandrabakty2, Naharuddin2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.2, pp. 325-335, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.012774
    Abstract In this study, the influence of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment and microwave treatment of coir fibers on the mechanical and physical properties of pressed coir fiber/epoxy composite were evaluated. The composite was fabricated with a hand lay-up method with compression molding. Before composite fabrication, pressed coir fiber was treated with NaOH and microwave treatments. Mechanical testing (tensile, flexural, and impact testing) of the composite was conducted. Then, water absorption and thickness swelling testing are also performed. The fractured composite surface morphology after the tensile test was analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The results revealed that tensile, flexural, and impact… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Melt Extrusion of Environmentally Friendly Poly(L-lactic acid)/Sodium Metabisulfite Films for Antimicrobial Packaging Applications

    Norma M. P. Machado1, Gustavo C. Melo1, Matheus F. Camargo1, Giulianna G. Feijó1, Bruna M. S. Putton2, Clarice Steffens2, Rogerio L. Cansian2, Luiz A. Pessan1, Francys K. V. Moreira1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.2, pp. 337-349, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.011081
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: 15th Brazilian Polymer Conference (15th CBPol))
    Abstract Food packaging materials compounded with antimicrobial additives can substantially diminish the incidence of foodborne diseases. Here, poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) films containing sodium metabisulfite (NaM) were produced by melt extrusion as an attempt to develop a new biodegradable material with antimicrobial properties for packaging. Life cycle assessment (LCA) simulations revealed that the environmental footprints of the PLA film did not change upon NaM addition, and that NaM is more eco-friendly than silver nanoparticles. The PLA/NaM films with NaM content varying from 0.5 to 5.0 wt.% were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and optical and mechanical properties determinations.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Prediction and Analysis of Post-Treatment of Sustainable Walnut Shell/Co-PES Parts by Laser Sintering

    Yueqiang Yu1, Suling Wang1,*, Minzheng Jiang1, Yanling Guo2,3, Ting Jiang1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.2, pp. 351-364, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.012885
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Polymeric Composites Based on Sustainable Technologies and Renewable Materials)
    Abstract In order to enhance the strength of sustainable walnut shell/Co-PES (WSPC) sintered parts, wax-filtrated post-treatment was carried out. The effects of treating fluid temperature, preheating time and immersion time on the bending strength of WSPC wax-filtrated parts were analyzed by single factor analysis method. To obtain an accurate model for predicting the bending strength of the WSPC wax-filtrated part, the experiments were involved by using Box-Behnken design (BBD). Main parameters, such as treating fluid temperature, preheating time and immersion time, and their interactive effects were analyzed through analysis of variance (ANOVA) and graphical contours. The results demonstrated that all parameters’… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Road Performance, Thermal Conductivity, and Temperature Distribution of Steel Slag Rubber Asphalt Surface Layer

    Zhiqiang Shu, Jianmin Wu*, Shaoqing Li, Bingbing Zhang, Jianqi Yang
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.2, pp. 365-380, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.014379
    Abstract The use of steel slag, which is a by-product of the steel manufacture, in the construction of asphalt pavement would contribute to waste reduction and environment protection. Using rubber asphalt at the same time can improve the performance of asphalt mixture. This study investigates the influence of steel slag content on the road performance, thermal conductivity and outdoor temperature distribution of steel slag rubber asphalt mixtures (SSRAM), and calculates the cumulative stress in surface layer. At a certain range of concentration, the steel slag additive improved the deformation resistance and low-temperature cracking resistance of the mixtures. The SSRAM with 40%… More >

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