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On the Cover


The given cover story illustrates a synthesis of urethane monomer from non-edible fruits of Jatropha curcas, where fatty acid is the main compound. After a three-step reaction, a polyurethane monomer (UJCO) is obtained. This monomer has the potential to be used in a wide range of commercial applications in wood composites such as non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU)-based wood adhesive.

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  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    A Review of Soy-Tannin Gelling for Resins Applications

    Antonio Pizzi*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 1-25, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.023314
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable and Biosourced Adhesives-2021)
    Abstract Soy flour (SF), soy protein and soy protein isolates (SPI) have been the focus of increasing research on their application as new materials for a variety of applications, mainly for wood adhesives and other resins. Tannins too have been the focus of increasing research for similar applications. While both materials are classed as non-toxic and have achieved interesting results the majority of the numerous and rather inventive approaches have still relied on some sort of hardeners or cross-linkers to bring either of them or even their combination to achieve acceptable results. The paper after a presentation of the two materials… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Elevated Temperature Properties of Bamboo Shaving Reinforced Geopolymer Composites

    Xinli Zhang1, Jiayu Zhang1, Zuhua Zhang2,*, Yiqiang Wu1,*, Yingfeng Zuo1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 27-40, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.023400
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract Geopolymer is a new alternative cement binder to produce concrete. In the present study, a novel geopolymer composites containing bamboo shaving (0–2 wt.%) were fabricated and exposed to the temperatures of 200°C, 400°C, 600°C and 800°C. Physical properties, micro-structure, and mechanical strengths of the geopolymer composites were evaluated before and after heating in order to understand their thermal properties, which are essential for the use as building materials. As the temperature rises, the drying shrinkage and apparent porosity of the composites increase, while the compressive and bending strengths decrease. At the temperature range of 200°C–800°C, the residual compressive strength rates of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Development and Characterization of Eco-Friendly Non-Isocyanate Urethane Monomer from Jatropha curcas Oil for Wood Composite Applications

    Samsul Bhakri1, Muhammad Ghozali2,*, Edy Cahyono1, Evi Triwulandari2, Witta Kartika Restu2, Nissa Nurfajrin Solihat3, Apri Heri Iswanto4,5, Petar Antov6, Viktor Savov6, Lee Seng Hua7, Erika Ayu Agustiany8, Lubos Kristak9, Widya Fatriasari3,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 41-59, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.023151
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advances in Eco-friendly Wood-Based Composites: Design, Manufacturing, Properties and Applications)
    Abstract The aim of this research work was to evaluate the potential of using renewable natural feedstock, i.e., Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) for the synthesis of non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) resin for wood composite applications. Commercial polyurethane (PU) is synthesized through a polycondensation reaction between isocyanate and polyol. However, utilizing toxic and unsustainable isocyanates for obtaining PU could contribute to negative impacts on the environment and human health. Therefore, the development of PU from eco-friendly and sustainable resources without the isocyanate route is required. In this work, tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide was used as the activator to open the epoxy ring with 3-Aminopropyltriethoxisylane… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Development and Characterization of Eco-Friendly Non-Isocyanate Urethane Monomer from <i>Jatropha curcas</i> Oil for Wood Composite Applications

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Fabrication and Modification Strategies of Metal Halide Perovskite Absorbers

    Xueyuan Wei, Yang Bai*, Qi Chen*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 61-77, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.022773
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Perovskite Solar Cells)
    Abstract Due to the long carrier lifetime, high carrier mobility, and high absorption coefficient of perovskite materials, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has increased from 3.8% in 2009 to 25.7% in 2021, which have already surpassed the PCE of thin-film solar cells and closes to the efficiency of Si-based photovoltaics (26.7%). Therefore, PSCs have become a promising clean energy technology for commercialization. However, the low defect formation energy of perovskite leads to a higher defect density than other conventional photovoltaic materials. It results in severe non-radiative recombination, limiting its further development and the commercialization. In this… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Fabrication and Modification Strategies of Metal Halide Perovskite Absorbers

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Preparation of Eco-Friendly High-Performance Manganese Dioxide Supercapacitors by Linear Sweep Voltammetry

    Junshan Zhao1,#, Yihan Shi1,#, Ming Zhang1, Liu Zhang1, Xumei Cui1, Xinghua Zhu2, Jitong Su1, Dandan Jing1, Dingyu Yang1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 79-91, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.022030
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable and Green Materials for Supercapacitors)
    Abstract In this paper, the non-polluting, non-toxic, and eco-friendly material-MnO2 electrodes were deposited on three-dimensional porous nickel (Ni) foam by linear sweep voltammetry, and the entire electrodeposition process did not require sintering of the material, which was fast and convenient while avoiding unnecessary energy consumption and thus was environmentally friendly. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the surface and microscopic characteristics of each sample (TEM). Chronoamperometry (CA), cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge (GCD), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were then used to determine the electrochemical characteristics of the manufactured samples. The result suggests that the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Numerical Modelling of Drying Induced Cracks in Wood Discs Using the Extended Finite Element Method

    Zongying Fu1, Yongdong Zhou1, Tingguo Yan2, Yun Lu1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 93-102, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.021808
    Abstract Drying crack is a common phenomenon occurring during moisture discharge from wood, reducing efficient wood utilization. Drying crack is primarily caused by drying stress, and the reasonable methods for determining drying stress are sparse. In this study, the initiation and propagation of cracks during wood discs drying were simulated using the extended finite element method (XFEM). The distribution of drying stress and displacement was analyzed at different crack conditions based on the simulation results. This study aimed to solve the problem of the limitation of drying stress testing methods and provide a new idea for the study of wood drying… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Research Progress of Eco-Friendly Portland Cement Porous Concrete: A Review

    Xin Cai1,2, Fan Li1, Xingwen Guo2,*, Ren Li3, Yanan Zhang1, Qinghui Liu2, Minmin Jiang4
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 103-130, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.022684
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Porous Materials for Sustainable Development)
    Abstract With the great impetus of energy conservation and emission reduction policies in various countries, the proposal of concepts such as “Sponge City” and “Eco-City”, and the emphasis on restoration and governance of ecological environment day by day, portland cement porous concrete (PCPC), as a novel building material, has attracted more and more attention from scientific researchers and engineers. PCPC possesses the peculiar pore structure, which owns numerous functions like river embankment protection, vegetation greening as well as air-cleaning, and has been of wide application in different engineering fields. This paper reviews the salient properties of PCPC, detailedly expounds the research… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Research Progress of Eco-Friendly Portland Cement Porous Concrete: A Review

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Characterization of Potential Cellulose from Hylocereus Polyrhizus (Dragon Fruit) peel: A Study on Physicochemical and Thermal Properties

    Nurul Hanan Taharuddin1, Ridhwan Jumaidin2,*, Muhd Ridzuan Mansor1, Fahmi Asyadi Md Yusof3, Roziela Hanim Alamjuri4,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 131-145, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.021528
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-Fibres, Biopolymers and Biocomposites – Design for Sustainability, Life Cycle Analysis, Concurrent Materials and Conceptual Design Selection)
    Abstract The strict environmental regulations to overcome the drawbacks of consumption and disposal of non-renewable synthetic materials have motivated this investigation. The physical, chemical, morphological, and thermal properties of Hylocereus Polyrhizus peel (HPP) powder obtained from the raw materials were examined in this study. The physical properties analyzes of Hylocereus Polyrhizus peel (HPP) powder discovered that the moisture content, density, and water holding capacity were 9.70%, 0.45 g/cm3 , and 98.60%, respectively. Meanwhile, the chemical composition analysis of Hylocereus Polyrhizus peel (HPP) powder revealed that the powder was significantly high in cellulose contents (34.35%) from other bio-peel wastes. The crystallinity index… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Characterization of Potential Cellulose from <i>Hylocereus Polyrhizus</i> (Dragon Fruit) peel: A Study on Physicochemical and Thermal Properties

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Optimization of Photo-Fenton Catalyst Preparation Based Bamboo Carbon Fiber by Response Surface Methodology

    Yizhang Wang1, Zhaoyang Yu1, Jinbo Hu1,2,*, Shanshan Chang1, Yuan Liu1, Ting Li2, Gonggang Liu1,*, Xiaodong (Alice) Wang3
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 147-165, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.021306
    Abstract In this paper, the residue from bamboo factory has been used to design photo-Fenton catalyst, which has the advantages of low cost and magnetic recycling. The photo-Fenton catalytic performance of the biocarbon-based catalyst was excellent and its optimal preparation process was also explored by response surface methodology. First, bamboo-carbon fiber was selected as the photo-Fenton catalyst carrier. Subsequently, the surface of the carbon fiber was modified, with which dopamine, nano-Fe3O4 and nano-TiO2 were successively loaded by hydrothermal method. After examined single factor tests, four factors including dopamine concentration, ferric chloride mass, P25 titanium dioxide mass and liquid-solid ratio were selected… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Optimization of Photo-Fenton Catalyst Preparation Based Bamboo Carbon Fiber by Response Surface Methodology

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Novel Method for the Quantitative Detection of Sericin Content in Silk Fiber Based on the Ratio of Aspartate to Alanine

    Yanfei Feng, Jiaming Lin, Longxing Niu, Peng Pan, Xueping Liu, Linling Huang, Ying Guo, Mingzhong Li*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 167-184, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.021339
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-Fibres, Biopolymers and Biocomposites – Design for Sustainability, Life Cycle Analysis, Concurrent Materials and Conceptual Design Selection)
    Abstract The development of a method for the quantitative determination of the sericin content ratio (SCR) is urgently needed for silk refining and the purification of silk fibroin for biomedical applications. In this work, a series of sericin/fibroin mixed samples with known SCRs were prepared by mixing initial samples of extracted sericin and fibroin from Bombyx mori silk. Significant differences were found in the contents of characteristic hydrophilic amino acids abundant in sericin and hydrophobic amino acids abundant in fibroin, and several linear relationships of SCR associated with the content ratios of Ser/Ala, Asp/Ala, Lys/Ala, Asp/Gly and Ser/Gly were established by… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    A Novel Method for the Quantitative Detection of Sericin Content in Silk Fiber Based on the Ratio of Aspartate to Alanine

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Preparation and Characterization of Stellera Chamaejasme-Based Carbon Molecular Sieves

    Baian Shen, Haichao Li*, Zixiang Guo, Jingxiao Li, Yuting Bao
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 185-195, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.020040
    Abstract The activation effect of boric acid as an activator is good, and we investigate the best activation conditions for the boric acid impregnation method. To represent the structural characteristics and adsorption performance of the Stellera Chamaejasme based carbon molecular sieves, we use Brunner-Emmet-Teller (BET) measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman spectra (Raman), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and adsorption property measurement. When the loading ratio was 0.68:1, the specific surface area was 532.21 m2/g, the total pore volume was 0.24 cm3/g, the average pore size was 1.81 nm, the adsorption value of methylene blue was 145.28 mg/g, and the adsorption value of iodine was 713.33 mg/g,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Study on Biological Pathway of Carbon Dioxide Methanation Based on Microbial Electrolysis Cell

    Guanwen Ding, Qifen Li*, Liting Zhang, Yuanbo Hou, Xiaoxiao Yan
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 197-207, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.020277
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: New Trends in Sustainable Materials for Energy Conversion, CO2 Capture and Pollution Control)
    Abstract Realization of CO2 resource utilization is the main development direction of CO2 reduction. The CO2 methanation technology based on microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) has the characteristics of ambient temperature and pressure, green and low-carbon, which meets the need of low-carbon energy transition. However, the lack of the system such as the change of applied voltage and the reactor amplification will affect the methane production efficiency. In this research, the efficiency of methane production with different applied voltages and different types of reactors was carried out. The results were concluded that the maximum methane production rate of the H-type two-chamber microbial… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Bond of Seawater Scoria Aggregate Concrete to Stainless Reinforcement

    Lei Yin, Yijie Huang*, Yanfei Dang, Qing Wang
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 209-231, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.020406
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recycled Concrete Towards a Sustainable Society)
    Abstract

    This study investigates the bond between seawater scoria aggregate concrete (SSAC) and stainless reinforcement (SR) through a series of pull-out tests. A total of 39 specimens, considering five experimental parameters—concrete type (SSAC, ordinary concrete (OC) and seawater coral aggregate concrete (SCAC)), reinforcement type (SR, ordinary reinforcement (OR)), bond length (3, 5 and 8 times bar diameter), concrete strength (C25 and C30) and concrete cover thickness (42 and 67 mm)—were prepared. The typical bond properties (failure pattern, bond strength, bond-slip curves and bond stress distribution, etc.) of seawater scoria aggregate concrete-stainless reinforcement (SSAC-SR) specimen were systematically studied. Generally, the failure pattern… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Bond of Seawater Scoria Aggregate Concrete to Stainless Reinforcement

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The Effect of Basalt Fiber on Concrete Performance under a Sulfate Attack Environment

    Qiang Su, Jinming Xu*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 233-244, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.020573
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Circular Economy in the Development of Eco-Friendly Materials for Construction)
    Abstract To enhance the sulfate attack resistance performance of concrete, Sulfate erosion test was carried out on basalt fiber concrete with different contents, selecting a concentration of 5% sulfate solution and using a dry−wet cycle mechanism attack of basalt fiber-reinforced concrete (BFRC). Every 15 dry−wet cycles, the mass, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and relative dynamic elastic modulus of BFRC were tested, and the SO42− concentration was measured. This work demonstrates that the mass, relative dynamic elastic modulus, compressive and splitting tensile strength of BFRC reveal a trend of climb up and then decline with the process of the dry−wet cycle.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Experimental Study of Mode-I and Mode-II Interlaminar Fracture Characteristics of Poplar LVL

    Zhongping Xiao1, Chen Li1,2, Biqing Shu1, Shukai Tang2, Xinghuan Yang2, Yan Liu2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 245-255, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.020751
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-based Composite/Hybrid Structures and Components)
    Abstract Fracture is a common failure form of poplar laminated veneer lumber (LVL). In the present work, we performed an experimental study on the mode-I along-grain interlaminar fracture, mode-I cross-grain interlaminar fracture, and mode-II interlaminar fracture of poplar LVL. We investigated stress mechanisms, failure modes, and fracture toughness values of the different fracture types. The experimental results revealed that the crack in the mode-I along-grain interlaminar fracture specimen propagated along the prefabricated crack direction, and the crack tip broke. The mode-I cross-grain interlaminar fracture specimen had cracks in the vertical direction near the prefabricated crack. In the mode-II interlaminar fracture specimen,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Study on Sustained-Release Pesticides Blended with Fosthiazate-Stearic Acid/Expanded Perlite

    Huimin Huang1, Zijun Wu2, Zhijian Zhou1, Qiulin Xu1, Jie Yan1,*, Qiaoguang Li1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 257-272, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.021073
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Biomass as a Platform for Preparing Green Chemistry)
    Abstract The low utilization rate of pesticides makes the migration of pesticides in water and soil, which brings great harm to the ecosystem. The development of pesticide carriers with good drug loading capacity and release control ability is an effective method to realize effective utilization of pesticides and reduce pesticide losses. In this work, fosthiazate-stearic acid/expanded perlite sustained-release particles were successfully prepared by vacuum impregnation using expanded perlite (EP) as carrier, fosthiazate (FOS) as model pesticide and stearic acid (SA) as hydrophobic matrix. The structure and morphology of the samples were studied by BET, FT-IR, TGA, XRD, DSC and SEM. The… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Study on Sustained-Release Pesticides Blended with Fosthiazate-Stearic Acid/Expanded Perlite

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study of the Stress Formation Mechanism of FDM with Different Printing Paths

    Heping Hou1, Yang Yue1,*, Jian Liu1, Darun Xi2, Shanhui Liu1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 273-289, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.021167
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Green, Recycled and Intelligent Technologies in Printing and Packaging)
    Abstract Environmental contamination has been caused by petroleum-based polymeric materials in the melt deposition process. Nowadays biodegradable materials have been widely used in the fused deposition modeling (FDM) industry, such as polylactic acid (PLA). However, internal complex thermal stress and deformations in part caused by an uneven distribution of PLA filament deposition temperatures during FDM, which will seriously affect the geometric accuracy of the printed part. In order to reduce material waste and environmental pollution during the printing process, the accuracy of PLA part can be improved. Herein, numerical simulation was carried out to investigate the temperature field and stress field… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Antibacterial Chitosan-Gelatin Microcapsules Modified with Green-Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles for Food Packaging

    Long Li, Yanan Lu, Yu Chen, Jiayi Bian, Li Wang, Li Li*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 291-307, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.021456
    Abstract Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are an effective antibacterial agent, but their application in food packaging is limited due to their easy agglomeration and oxidation. In this study, antibacterial microcapsules were fabricated using Ginkgo biloba essential oil (GBEO) as core material and chitosan and type B gelatin biopolymer as capsule materials. These antibacterial microcapsules were then modified with green-synthesized Ag NPs, blended into the biopolymer polylactic acid (PLA), and finally formed as films. Physicochemical properties and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were evaluated. Results showed that the prepared antibacterial PLA films exhibited excellent antibacterial… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Antibacterial Chitosan-Gelatin Microcapsules Modified with Green-Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles for Food Packaging

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Influence of Dowel Center Spacing on Chamfered-Joint Components Made by Cupressus funebris Wood

    Jianhua Lyu1,2,#, Jialei Wang1,2,#, Ziqiang Chen3, Ming Chen1,2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 309-319, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.021478
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-Composite Materials and Structures-2021)
    Abstract The traditional tenon and mortise joint has low processing efficiency and a weak theoretical basis, making the structure easy to deform and damage, reducing the safety, and increasing waste of resources. This study aims to determine the optimum dowel center spacing parameter for chamfered-joint components and the maximum value of the strength of joints loaded into bending strength and tensile strength. In this study, an integrated optimization method combining the single-factor test and one-way ANOVA analysis was proposed to study the influence of the dowel center spacing on the bending strength and the tensile strength of chamfered-joint components made by… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Microwave Drying of Scots Pine Lumber: Structure Changes, Its Effect on Liquid Permeability

    Sheng He1, Weiqi Leng2,*, Yuhe Chen1, Hongchen Li3, Jingpeng Li1, Zaixing Wu1, Zizhang Xiao1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 321-331, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.022097
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Functionalization of Wood and Bamboo-Based Materials)
    Abstract Microwave (MW) drying method was adopted to enhance the liquid permeability of Scots pine lumber. Structure changes were characterized by stereoscope microscope, scanned electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination. Pore parameters before and after MW treatment were detected by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) method, and the effect of structure changes on liquid permeability were analyzed. As stereoscope microscope, SEM and TEM examination results shown, macro and micro checks mainly developed at intercellcular of tracheids, intercellular of ray parenchyma and tracheid, while these checks extend main along the radial-longitudinal plane. Pit border destruction, aspirated pits’ orus translocation and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Simulation Analysis of Stress Field of Walnut Shell Composite Powder in Laser Additive Manufacturing Forming

    Yueqiang Yu1, Tingang Ma1, Suling Wang1,*, Minzheng Jiang1, Yanling Guo2,3, Ting Jiang1,*, Shuaiqi Huang1, Ziming Zheng1, Bo Yan1, Jiyuan Lv1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 333-347, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.022296
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Computational Tools for Renewable Materials)
    Abstract A calculation model of stress field in laser additive manufacturing of walnut shell composite powder (walnut shell/Co-PES powder) was established. The DFLUX subroutine was used to implement the moveable application of a double ellipsoid heat source by considering the mechanical properties varying with temperature. The stress field was simulated by the sequential coupling method, and the experimental results were in good accordance with the simulation results. In addition, the distribution and variation of stress and strain field were obtained in the process of laser additive manufacturing of walnut shell composite powder. The displacement of laser additive manufacturing walnut shell composite… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Simulation Analysis of Stress Field of Walnut Shell Composite Powder in Laser Additive Manufacturing Forming

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Shear Behaviors of Steel-Plate Connections for Timber-Concrete Composite Beams with Prefabricated Concrete Slabs

    Benkai Shi, Bowen Huang, Huifeng Yang*, Yongqing Dai, Sijian Chen
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 349-361, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.022343
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-based Composite/Hybrid Structures and Components)
    Abstract To promote the development of timber-concrete composite (TCC) structures, it is necessary to propose the assembly-type connections with high assembly efficiency and shear performances. This article presented the experimental results of the innovative steel-plate connections for TCC beams using prefabricated concrete slabs. The steel-plate connections consisted of the screws and the steel-plates. The steel-plates were partly embedded in the concrete slabs. The concrete slabs and the timber beams were connected by screws through the steel-plates. The parameters researched in this article included screw number, angle steel as the reinforcement for anchoring, and shallow notches on the timber surface to restrict… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Numerical Simulation of Vacuum Preloading for Chemically Conditioned Municipal Sludge

    Wenwei Li1, Xinjie Zhan2,*, Baotian Wang1, Jinyu Zuo1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 363-378, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.022254
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Computational Tools for Renewable Materials)
    Abstract Municipal sludge is a sedimentation waste produced during the wastewater process in sewage treatment plants. Among recent studies, pilot and field tests showed that chemical conditioning combined with vacuum preloading can effectively treat municipal sludge. To further understand the drainage and consolidation characteristics of the conditioning sludge during vacuum preloading, a large deformation nonlinear numerical simulation model based on the equal strain condition was developed to simulate and analyze the pilot and field tests, whereas the simulation results were not satisfactory. The results of the numerical analysis of the pilot test showed that the predicted consolidation degree was greater than… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Synthesis and Antioxidant Activity of (E) ω-Formylcamphene-Based Thiazole Hydrazone Derivatives

    Jiayu Chang1, Qingying Ding1, Chong Zhong1, Yao Long2, Zhuanquan Xiao3, Hai Luo1, Yuling Yang1, Zongde Wang1, Shengliang Liao1, Jinzhu Chen2, Shangxing Chen1,*, Ji Zhang1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 379-391, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.022535
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Biomass as a Platform for Preparing Green Chemistry)
    Abstract (E) ω-formylcamphene was synthesized from α-pinene, the main component of turpentine, and then reacted with thiosemicarbazide to obtain (E) ω-formylcamphene thiosemicarbazide 3, which was reacted with 14 α-bromoacetophenone compounds to obtain 14 (E) ω-formylcamphene thiazole hydrazone compounds 5a5n; the yields were all above 80%. The structures of the target compounds were characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and HR-MS analyses. Then, 500, 250, 125, 62.5, and 31.25 mg/L drug solutions were prepared. Free radical scavenging experiments of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2-bis (3-ethyl-benzothiazole-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) were carried out with Trolox and L-ascorbic acid as the control samples. The scavenging… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effects of Strain Rate and Fiber Content on the Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Sisal Fiber Cement-Based Composites

    Yubo Zhang, Ping Lei, Lina Wang, Jiqing Yang*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 393-410, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.022659
    Abstract In this paper, a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) was used to investigate the dynamic impact mechanical behavior of sisal fiber-reinforced cement-based composites (SFRCCs), and the microscopic damage evolution of the composites was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). The results show that the addition of sisal fibers improves the impact resistance of cement-based composite materials. Compared with ordinary cement-based composites (OCCs), the SFRCCs demonstrate higher post-peak strength, ductility, and energy absorption capacity with higher fiber content. Moreover, the SFRCCs are strain rate sensitive materials, and their peak stress, ultimate strain, and energy integrals all… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Hydrochar Pelletization towards Solid Biofuel from Biowaste Hydrothermal Carbonization

    Ao Li, Kai Jin, Jinrui Qin, Zhaowei Huang, Yu Liu, Rui Chen, Tengfei Wang*, Junmin Chen*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 411-422, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.024889
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Biochar Based Materials for a Green Future)
    Abstract Hydrothermal carbonization is highly applicable to high moisture biomass upgrading due to fact that moisture involved can be directly used as reaction media under subcritical-water region. With this, value-added utilization of hydrochar as solid fuel with high carbon and energy density is one of the important pathways for biomass conversion. In this review, the dewatering properties of hydrochar after the hydrothermal carbonization of biowaste, coalification degree with elemental composition and evolution, pelletization of hydrochar to enhance the mechanical properties and density, coupled with the combustion properties of hydrochar biofuel were discussed with various biomass and carbonization parameters. Potential applications for… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Hydrochar Pelletization towards Solid Biofuel from Biowaste Hydrothermal Carbonization

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Research on the Performance of Titanium Gypsum Concrete Based on Calcium-Silicon-Sulfur Ratio

    Lixia Guo1,2,3, Weikai Wang1, Ling Zhong1,2,3,*, Yuhang Guo1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 423-434, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.022942
    Abstract Based on the high sulfur content in titanium gypsum, the concept of the calcium-silicon-sulfur (Ca/Si/S) ratio was proposed. The Ca/Si/S ratio of concrete was adjusted by changing the titanium gypsum, fly ash, and cement content. The effects of different Ca/Si/S ratios on the mechanical properties, hydration products, and concrete microstructure were investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance, uniaxial compression, and scanning electron microscopy. The result shows: (1) The compressive strength of concrete mixed with titanium gypsum increases first and then decreases with the Ca/Si/S ratio decrease. When the Ca/Si/S ratio is 1:0.85:0.10, the strength reaches the peak and is lower than… More >

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    Research on the Performance of Titanium Gypsum Concrete Based on Calcium-Silicon-Sulfur Ratio

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Primary Study on Mechanical Properties of Heat-Treated Wood via in-situ Synthesis of Calcium Carbonate

    Dianen Liang1, Zhenhao Ding1, Qilin Yan1, Redžo Hasanagić2, Leila Fathi3, Zi Yang1, Longhao Li1, Jianbo Wang1, Houhua Luo1, Qian Wang1, Demiao Chu1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 435-451, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.023214
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Functionalization of Wood and Bamboo-Based Materials)
    Abstract This study aims to improve the value of fast-growing wood and extend the heat-treated wood utilization using inorganic calcium carbonate (CaCO3) crystals via an in-situ synthesis method. CaCl2 and Na2CO3 solutions with a concentration ratio of 1:1 were successively introduced into the thermally modified poplar wood obtained by steam heat treatment (HT) at 200°C for 1.5 and 3 h, resulting in the in-situ synthesis of CaCO3 crystals inside the heat-treated wood. The filling effect was best at the concentration of 1.2 mol/L. CaCO3 was uniformly distributed in the cell cavities of the heat-treated wood, and some of the crystals were… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    A Primary Study on Mechanical Properties of Heat-Treated Wood via <i>in-situ</i> Synthesis of Calcium Carbonate

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Study on Mechanical Properties and Action Mechanism of Leather Industrial Sludge Aggregate Baking-Free Bricks

    Lei Guo1,2,3, Zekun Wang1, Lixia Guo1,2,3,*, Pingping Chen1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 453-471, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.023315
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Potential Materials Towards Sustainable Construction)
    Abstract Taking an industrial sludge and its preparation of sludge wrap shell aggregates (WSAs) instead of sand to prepare baking-free brick as the research object, the development law of mechanical properties and the influence mechanism of macro and micro characteristic parameters of the bricks under different sludge and WSAs replacement rates were studied through the macroscopic mechanical properties test, with the help of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), transmission electron microscopy-energy spectrum and other testing technology and pores and cracks analysis system (PCAS) software. The results showed that the compressive strength of each sample decreased with the increase of sludge content. When… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Study on Mechanical Properties and Action Mechanism of Leather Industrial Sludge Aggregate Baking-Free Bricks

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Research on the Bending Impact Resistance and Transverse Fracture Characteristics of Bamboo under the Action of Falling Weight

    Hao Jia1,2, Benhua Fei1,2, Changhua Fang1,2, Huanrong Liu1,2, Xiubiao Zhang1,2, Xinxin Ma1,2, Fengbo Sun1,2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 473-490, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.023548
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Functionalization of Wood and Bamboo-Based Materials)
    Abstract Drop weight impact tester was used to accurately measure the bending impact resistance of various parts of Phyllostachys edulis, commonly known as moso bamboo, with a growth cycle of 3–8 years. Cellulose crystallinity in the bottom (B), middle (M) and top (T) of bamboo at different ages was calculated using peak height analysis in X-ray diffraction. Heatmap of Spearman correlation analysis was used to represent the correlation between chemical composition and impact mechanics. The breaking load (BL), fracture energy (FE) and impact deflection (ID) of 3–8-yearold bamboo were found to be in the range of ~670–2120 N, ~5.17–15.55 J, and… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Research on the Bending Impact Resistance and Transverse Fracture Characteristics of Bamboo under the Action of Falling Weight

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