Home / Journals / JRM / Vol.1, No.4, 2013
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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Development of Soy Protein Plastics Using Functional Chemistry for Short-Life Biodegradable Applications

    David Grewell*, Sean T. Carolan, Gowrishankar Srinivasan
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.1, No.4, pp. 231-241, 2013, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2013.634120
    Abstract : Soy protein plastic formulations were developed through iterative experimental stages to produce waterstable, soy protein isolate (SPI)-based plastic resins. The protein polymer-based materials are glycerol and water plasticized resins that have been described as thermoplastics [1] by some researchers and have been described as materials that behave similar to thermoplastics upon application of heat and pressure [2]. Previous researchers have developed SPI plastic for various applications, all of which were adversely effected by water absorption. The formulations in this research included anhydride chemistries, such as maleic anhydride (MA), phthalic anhydride (PA), and bifunctional chemistries, such as adipic acid in… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Synthesis of Resins with Ozonized Sunfl ower Oil and Radiata Pine Tannins

    M.Thébault*, A.Pizzi, E.Fredon
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.1, No.4, pp. 242-252, 2013, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2013.634121
    Abstract Sunfl ower oil was subjected to a fl ow of compressed air containing ozone for different time periods. The addition of α-D-Glucose was used to increase the aldehyde content by reduction of the intermediate ozonides of the ozonation reaction. These new oils were analyzed by FTIR and GC-MS spectrometry, and their relative aldehyde groups content measured by the Henick method. They were then mixed with an aqueous solution of Radiata Pine tannin to form resins, subsequently analyzed by 13C NMR and MALDITOF mass spectrometry. Wood particleboards were then made using some of these resins as the adhesive, and their internal… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Biodegradability and Compostability of Lignocellulosic Based Composite Materials

    Sudhakar Muniyasamy1, Andrew Anstey2, Murali M. Reddy1, Manju Misra1,2, Amar Mohanty1,2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.1, No.4, pp. 253-272, 2013, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2013.634117
    Abstract Lignocellulosic composites have attracted interest from both academia and industry due to their benefi cial environmental and sustainability attributes. The lignocellulosic industry has seen remarkable improvements in the development of composites for high performance applications. Both biodegradable as well as non-biodegradable polymers are used in the design and engineering of lignocellulosic composites. Biodegradability studies of lignocellulosic composites in soil and composting environments help in planning their end-life management. Biodegradability tests are complex and dependent on the environment in which the testing is carried out. Due to this, standards have been developed by international agencies such as the American Society for… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Dynamic Foaming Behaviour of Polyurethane vs Tannin/ Furanic Foams

    M.C. Basso1,2, A. Pizzi1,3,*, A. Celzard4
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.1, No.4, pp. 273-278, 2013, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2013.634125
    Abstract : Simultaneously monitoring the variation of temperature, foam rising rate, internal foam pressure and dielectric polarisation, the latter being a direct measure of setting and curing of a thermosetting foam, has allowed the comparison of the dynamic variation of determinant parameters of polyurethane foams and of tannin/furanic foams of different formulation and characteristics. This monitoring provides a good description of the process and possible characteristics of the prepared foam and constitutes an invaluable tool for foam formulation. Such a comparison indicates that fundamental differences, but also similarities, exist between the foaming processes of the two classes of foam. The dynamics… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Tensile Strength and Water Absorption Behavior of Recycled Jute-Epoxy Composites

    Sihan Wang, Reza Masoodi*, Janet Brady, Brian R. George
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.1, No.4, pp. 279-288, 2013, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2013.634122
    Abstract Recycled natural fi bers and biopolymers with sustainable, eco-friendly, and biodegradable properties are receiving increased attention. The moisture absorption and swelling of natural fi ber composites adversely infl uence their mechanical properties and applications. In this research, bio-based epoxy polymers that are reinforced with recycled woven jute fabrics were subjected to water immersion tests in order to study the effect of water absorption on their mechanical and geometrical properties. For comparison, petroleum-based epoxy polymers that are reinforced with new woven jute fabrics were also subjected to the same tests. The effect of fi ber percentage on water absorption, thickness swelling,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Thermally Stable Polymers of Cardanol as Char-Forming Additives for Polypropylene

    Weeradech Kiratitanavit1, Sethumadhavan Ravichandran2,Zhiyu Xia1, Jayant Kumar3,4, Ramaswamy Nagarajan1,4,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.1, No.4, pp. 289-301, 2013, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2013.634126
    Abstract Globally, certain types of halogenated fl ame retardant additives (FR) are becoming increasingly regulated or banned from being used in polymers. There is an immediate need for alternative non-toxic thermally stable polymers and char-forming additives. Development of non-halogenated FR for the commonly used and highly fl ammable thermoplastics, namely polyolefi ns, is particularly important and challenging. This research explores the possibility of utilizing char-forming compounds based on polymer of cardanol as an additive that can lower the heat release capacity (HRC) when blended with polypropylene (PP). Polycardanol is thermally stable and exhibits moderate HRC upon thermal decomposition and forms a… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Peroxide Treatment of Soy Protein Fibers Followed by Grafting of Poly(methyl acrylate) and Copolymers

    Pushpa Bhardwaj1, Susheel Kalia2,3,*, Amit Kumar1, Hemant Mittal4
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.1, No.4, pp. 302-310, 2013, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2013.634123
    Abstract The objective of the present study is to elucidate the effect of peroxide treatment and graft copolymerization on water absorption behavior of soy protein fi bers in order to make them suitable as a reinforcing material. Grafting of poly(methyl acrylate) and copolymers was successfully carried out on peroxide-treated soy protein fi bers. Different reaction parameters were optimized in order to get maximum percentage grafting. The grafted fi bers were evaluated for water absorption behavior in deionized water. Maximum grafting has been found at 0.219 mol/l of methyl acrylate, 0.0096:0.145 mol/l of FAS:H2O2 , 323 K, and 90minutes. Graft copolymerization results… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Fast Pressing Composite Using Tannin-Furfuryl Alcohol Resin and Vegetal Fibers Reinforcement

    Arnaud Nicollin1, Xinjun Li1, Pierre Girods1, Antonio Pizzi1,2,*, Yann Rogaume1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.1, No.4, pp. 311-316, 2013, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2013.634124
    Abstract Experimental investigations have been carried out on the potential use of tannin-furfuryl alcohol resin for biobased composites using vegetal fi ber reinforcement. Results showed that a mixture containing 54% furfuryl alcohol, 45% modifi ed quebracho extract and 0.9% paratoluenesulfonic acid as a catalyst yields a resin that can be used with a nonwoven fl ax fi ber mat to manufacture lightweight composites with good mechanical properties and a very short curing time with a regular hot press. The panels made were tested for tensile and fl exural modulus and strength, water resistance and thermo-degradation. More >

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