Home / Journals / JRM / Vol.2, No.2, 2014
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  • Open Access

    EDITORIAL

    Editorial

    Francisco Vilaplana
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.2, No.2, pp. 93-94, 2014, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2014.634109
    Abstract This article has no abstract. More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Thermoplastic Starch: Current Development and Future Trends

    Fengwei Xie1,*, Paul Luckman1, John Milne1, Lachlan McDonald1, Conor Young1, Chen Yang Tu1, Teo Di Pasquale1, Reinhard Faveere1, Peter J. Halley1,2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.2, No.2, pp. 95-106, 2014, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2014.634104
    Abstract Starch is a biopolymer that is widely available from agriculture/nature and thus is renewable and cheap. In addition, starch-based materials are biodegradable, offering a great advantage over traditional nonbiodegradable synthetic polymers. However, the poor processibility and product performance of starch have greatly impeded the wide application of starch in real applications. This paper reviews the current developments of the production of thermoplastic starch as a commodity renewable material. The biological origins of the feedstock, formulation development, processing requirements, as well as the important aspects that need to be addressed when designing a product from starch are discussed. It is hoped… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A New Method for Developing Industrially Viable Nanocrystalline Cellulose-based Nanocomposites via Melt Compounding

    Marta Martínez-Sanz, Amparo López-Rubio, Maria José Fabra, José M. Lagaron*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.2, No.2, pp. 107-117, 2014, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2014.634106
    Abstract Due to their high crystallinity and aspect ratio, bacterial cellulose nanowhiskers (BCNW) represent an appealing choice for the development of fully biobased nanocomposite materials with high barrier performance. However, their strong tendency to self-associate, together with their highly hydrophilic character, has restricted the production of nanocomposites containing cellulose nanowhiskers by industrial processing techniques such as melt compounding. Th is article presents an overview of the latest published results carried out within our group and also in other relevant literature, which have led to the development of an effi cient strategy for the incorporation of highly dispersed BCNW by melt compounding… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Nanocelluloses from Eucalyptus Wood Pulp: A Morphological Comparison

    Antonio J. F. Carvalho
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.2, No.2, pp. 118-122, 2014, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2014.634108
    Abstract Two nanocelluloses from eucalyptus, namely microfi brillated cellulose (MFC) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), were prepared and compared by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The MFC fi bers are 20–30 nm wide and are composed of very homogeneous bundles of aligned regular elementary fi brils of 3–5 nm diameter. They show long straight portions and short fl exible zones, attributed to crystalline and amorphous zones, respectively. The needle-shaped CNC was approximately 200 nm long and 10 nm wide in the wider portion. A model for the MFC structure, whose fl exible zones are formed by alignment of the amorphous portion of the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Impact of Biodegradable Chitosan-Based Coating on Barrier Properties of Papers

    Nicolas Bordenave1,2,3,*, Diana Kemmer4, Sonja Smolic4, Roland Franz4, Florence Girard5, Veronique Coma1,2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.2, No.2, pp. 123-133, 2014, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2014.634105
    Abstract Aroma and oxygen-barrier properties of chitosan-coated papers were measured in order to evaluate the potential of these materials as biodegradable materials for food packaging. Firstly, two chitosans (Chi- 244 and Chi-652) were studied according to their ultimate biodegradability. Chi-652 showed the best fi nal biodegradation rate and was then used for subsequent tests in association with papers. Then, oxygen-barrier and aroma-barrier properties of papers, Chi-652 fi lms and Chi-652-coated papers were investigated. The Chi-652 fi lms exhibited oxygen-barrier at low relative humidity and aroma-barrier comparable to synthetic materials already used in the packaged food industry. Both papers exhibited poor barrier… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Material Properties and Molecular Aspects of Highly Acetylated Starch-Based Films

    Kristine Koch1,*, Daniel Johansson2, Kalle Johansson3, Karin Svegmark4
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.2, No.2, pp. 134-144, 2014, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2014.634110
    Abstract Properties of starch triacetate fi lms from different botanical origins were evaluated. Tensile and barrier properties, glass transition temperatures and moisture uptake were measured, and the molecular structure was characterised. High-amylose starches were good fi lm formers, normal potato starch formed continuous but brittle fi lms and potato amylopectin formed very brittle fi lms even after plasticisation. Barley amylopectin did not form continuous fi lms. Different plasticisers were studied and diacetin was shown to perform better than the standard plasticiser triacetin. All fi lms were water resistant, and the best fi lms gave water vapour barriers in the range of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Degradation Behaviour of Natural Fibre Reinforced Starch-Based Composites under Different Environmental Conditions

    Rosana Moriana1,2,*, Emma Strömberg1, Amparo Ribes2, Sigbritt Karlsson1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.2, No.2, pp. 145-156, 2014, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2014.634103
    Abstract The purpose of this work was to study the effect of hydrothermal, biological and photo degradation on natural fi bres reinforced biodegradable starch-based (Mater-BiKE) composites to characterize the structural changes occurring under exposure to different environments. The composites water-uptake rate was hindered by the interfacial interactions between matrix and fi bres. Thermal, structural and morphological analysis provided useful information about the irreversible changes in the properties of the composites caused by degradation in soil and photodegradation, and their synergetic effects. The effects due to the photo-oxidation and degradation in soil on the composites depended on the different chemical composition of… More >

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