Home / Journals / JRM / Vol.8, No.6, 2020
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  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Plant Oil-Based Waterborne Polyurethanes: A Brief Review

    Verónica L. Mucci1, M. E. Victoria Hormaiztegui2, Mirta I. Aranguren1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.6, pp. 579-601, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.09455
    Abstract The increasing pressure from consumers and policy makers to reduce the use of synthetic polymers, whose production contributes to the depletion of non-renewable resources and are usually non- biodegradable, has prompted the efforts to find suitable bio-based sources for the production of polymers. Vegetable oils have been a frequently spotted in this search because they are versatile, highly available and a low cost liquid biosource, which can be used in the synthesis of a wide plethora of different polymers and reactive monomers. Following the same idea of reducing the environmental stress, the traditional polyurethanes that are soluble in organic solvents… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of Phenolation, Lignin-Type and Degree of Substitution on the Properties of Lignin-Modified Phenol-Formaldehyde Impregnation Resins: Molecular Weight Distribution, Wetting Behavior, Rheological Properties and Thermal Curing Profiles

    Marion Thébault1, Larysa Kutuzova2, Sandra Jury1, Iris Eicher1, Edith-Martha Zikulnig-Rusch1, Andreas Kandelbauer2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.6, pp. 603-630, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.09616
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable and Biosourced Adhesives)
    Abstract Here, the effects of substituting portions of fossil-based phenol in phenol formaldehyde resin by renewable lignin from two different sources are investigated using a factorial screening experimental design. Among the resins consumed by the wood-based industry, phenolics are one of the most important types used for impregnation, coating or gluing purposes. They are prepared by condensing phenol with formaldehyde (PF). One major use of PF is as matrix polymer for decorative laminates in exterior cladding and wet-room applications. Important requirements for such PFs are favorable flow properties (low viscosity), rapid curing behavior (high reactivity) and sufficient self-adhesion capacity (high residual… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Preparation and Characterization of Waterborne Polyurethane/Cellulose Nanocrystal Composite Membrane from Recycling Waste Paper

    Xing Zhou1,*, Xin Zhang1, Dong Wang1, Changqing Fang1,*, Wanqing Lei1, Zhigang Huang2, Yonghua Song1, Xinyu He1, Yingwei Huang1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.6, pp. 631-645, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.010176
    Abstract Cellulose plays a key role in abundant organic natural materials meeting the increasing demand for green and biocompatible products. The highly crystalline nanoscale component of cellulose nanocrystals has recently attracted great attention due to the versatile performance as filler or matrix in producing functional materials. In this work, we prepared the waterborne polyurethane via a prepolymer process, and obtained cellulose and cellulose nanocrystals from waste paper via a facile acid hydrolysis process. After that, the cellulose nanocrystals were assembled into film and mixed with polyurethane to prepare flexible polyurethane/cellulose nanocrystals composite membrane with different soaking time. The correlation between the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Manufacturing Process Selection of “Green” Oil Palm Natural Fiber Reinforced Polyurethane Composites Using Hybrid TEA Criteria Requirement and AHP Method for Automotive Crash Box

    N. S. B. Yusof1,2, S. M. Sapuan1,3,*, M. T. H. Sultan1,4, M. Jawaid1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.6, pp. 647-660, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.08309
    Abstract In this study, the best manufacturing process will be selected to build an automotive crash box using green oil palm natural fibre-reinforced polyurethane composite materials. This paper introduces an approach consist of technical aspects (T), the economic point of view (E) and availability (A), and it’s also called as TEA requirement. This approach was developed with the goal of assisting the design engineer in the selection of the best manufacturing process during the design phase at the criteria selection stage. In this study, the TEA requirement will integrate with the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to assist decision makers or manufacturing… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Differential Catalysis of Depolymerisation and Dehydration Reactions: Producing Furfural from Plant Biomass

    Nikolajs Vedernikovs*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.6, pp. 661-674, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.09274
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: The 10th Conference on Green Chemistry and Nanotechnologies in Polymeric Materials (GCNPM 2019))
    Abstract The main principles of the technological realisation of the furfural obtaining process have been formulated by Ricard [1]. Based on his recommendations, all investigators proceeded from the assumption that the depolymerisation of pentosans and the dehydration of pentoses in the one-step production of furfural from raw plant material must be accelerated with diluted catalyst solutions. According to this theory, uniform impregnation of the raw material with a catalyst solution is considered necessary. The reduction in the amount of the catalyst solution down to 30–40% of the mass of the dry raw material, suggested by Miner et al. [2], made the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Application of the Principles of “Green Chemistry” for the Synthesis of 10-Undecylenic Aliphatic Esters with Antimicrobial Activity

    Dragomir Vassilev1,*, Nadezhda Petkova2, Yulian Tumbarski3, Milena Koleva1, Panteley Denev2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.6, pp. 675-686, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.09279
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: The 10th Conference on Green Chemistry and Nanotechnologies in Polymeric Materials (GCNPM 2019))
    Abstract Undenicylic acid (10:1) is known as an antifungal agent and an active ingredient of many topical medicines [1–6]. The present research investigates the preparation of aliphatic esters of 10-undecylic acid with butanol and i-amyl alcohol by the conventional and ultrasound-assisted syntheses as well as the structural elucidation of the resulting compounds, by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. The antimicrobial properties of the obtained 10-undecylenic esters were tested against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus; Enterococcus faecalis; Listeria monocytogenes), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli; Salmonella sp.) and filamentous fungi (Penicillium sp.; Aspergillus niger; Fusarium moniliforme) using the conventional agar-well diffusion assay. The results demonstrated that… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Bond Performance of Adhesively Bonding Interface of Steel-Bamboo Composite Structure

    Jialiang Zhang1, Zhenwen Zhang2, Keting Tong1, Jianmin Wang2, Yushun Li3,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.6, pp. 687-702, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.09513
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-composite Materials and Structures)
    Abstract The steel-bamboo composite structure is a newly developed structure, combining phyllostachys pubescens (also called Moso bamboo) plywood and cold-formed thin-walled steel with structural adhesive. The reliability of steelbamboo interface is the premise of composite effect. 13 specimens were prepared to investigate the failure modes and mechanism of the steel-bamboo interface on the basis of push-out test, and the strain difference analysis method was proposed to study the distribution of shear stress. The results show that the main failure modes of steel-bamboo interface are adhesion failure and splitting of bamboo plywood. The shear stress is not evenly distributed along the longitudinal… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    NaOH/Urea Swelling Treatment and Hydrothermal Degradation of Waste Cotton Fiber

    Lixia Gao1, Sheng Shi1,2,*, Wensheng Hou1, Shuhua Wang1, Zhifeng Yan1, Chao Ge1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.6, pp. 703-713, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.09055
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable materials for sustainable development)
    Abstract In this study, waste cotton fabric was used as cellulose raw material and pretreated in aqueous NaOH/urea solution system to investigate the effect of NaOH/urea pretreatment solution on the hydrolysis of cotton fiber. The cotton fiber was pretreated with different conditions of aqueous NaOH/urea solution, and the pretreated cotton fiber was hydrolyzed under the same conditions as the original cotton fiber. The results of characterization analysis showed that water retention value of pretreated cotton fiber was higher than that of unpretreated sample. Moreover, the cotton fiber presented both a convoluted structure and a coarser surface, XRD results suggested that the… More >

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