Table of Content

Open AccessOpen Access


Preparation and Characterization of Waterborne Polyurethane/Cellulose Nanocrystal Composite Membrane from Recycling Waste Paper

Xing Zhou1,*, Xin Zhang1, Dong Wang1, Changqing Fang1,*, Wanqing Lei1, Zhigang Huang2, Yonghua Song1, Xinyu He1, Yingwei Huang1

1 Faculty of Printing, Packaging Engineering and Digital Media Technology, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an, 710048, China
2 School of Materials Science and Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing, 100048, China

* Corresponding Authors: Xing Zhou. Email: ; Changqing Fang. Email:

Journal of Renewable Materials 2020, 8(6), 631-645.


Cellulose plays a key role in abundant organic natural materials meeting the increasing demand for green and biocompatible products. The highly crystalline nanoscale component of cellulose nanocrystals has recently attracted great attention due to the versatile performance as filler or matrix in producing functional materials. In this work, we prepared the waterborne polyurethane via a prepolymer process, and obtained cellulose and cellulose nanocrystals from waste paper via a facile acid hydrolysis process. After that, the cellulose nanocrystals were assembled into film and mixed with polyurethane to prepare flexible polyurethane/cellulose nanocrystals composite membrane with different soaking time. The correlation between the bulk structure and applied properties including thermal resistance and mechanical property was investigated by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and folding test. The structure analysis indicates that cellulose nanocrystals prepared from used paper have a quality similar to that of commercial cellulose. Meanwhile, the cellulose nanocrystals have been mixed with polyurethane uniformly. Polyurethane can significantly benefit to the thermal resistance and mechanical property of the cellulose nanocrystals film. The polyurethane/cellulose nanocrystals composite membrane present good flexibility and may hold a significantly potential application as visual and flexible material.


Cite This Article

Zhou, X., Zhang, X., Wang, D., Fang, C., Lei, W. et al. (2020). Preparation and Characterization of Waterborne Polyurethane/Cellulose Nanocrystal Composite Membrane from Recycling Waste Paper. Journal of Renewable Materials, 8(6), 631–645.


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • 3022


  • 1966


  • 0


Share Link