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  • Open AccessOpen Access

    Biobased Polyols Using Thiol-Ene Chemistry for Rigid Polyurethane Foams with Enhanced Flame-Retardant Properties

    C. K. Ranaweera1, M. Ionescu2, N. Bilic2, X. Wan2, P. K. Kahol3, Ram K. Gupta1,2*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, Suppl.1, pp. 1-12, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634105
    Abstract Biobased polyol was synthesized using 1-thioglycerol and limonene, an extract of orange peel, via thiol-ene chemistry as an alternative to petrochemical-based polyol for preparation of rigid polyurethane foams (RPFs). Fire-retardant polyurethane foams were prepared by addition of different amounts of dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP) in the polyol. The effect of DMMP on the properties of RPFs was studied. All the biobased RPFs maintained a regular cell structure with uniform cell distribution and over 90% of closed cell. The RPFs showed excellent compressive strength of ~230 kPa without addition of DMMP. These RPFs almost retained their specific compressive strength even when… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    Characteristics of Fry-Drying and Solid Refuse Fuels for Organic Wastes with High Water Content

    Taein Ohm1*, Jongseong Chae1, Younghyo Kim1, Seunghyun Moon2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, Suppl.1, pp. 13-21, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634127
    Abstract With the dramatic increase in the quantity of organic wastes, economic and environmentally friendly technologies are urgently required for reducing the volume of sludge and remediating its harmful impacts. In this study, drying experiments were performed on sludge through fry-drying technology and the characteristics of the resulting fuels were investigated to identify proper methods for treating sewage sludge, wastewater sludge, swine excreta, and food waste and converting them into fuels. The four types of organic wastes were fry-dried, and the best drying conditions were found to be 140 °C for 8 min for sewage sludge and 150 °C for 10… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    Synthesis of Methyl Lactate from Glycerol Using Sn-Beta Zeolite

    Wenjie Dong, Chenlu Wang, Minyan Gu, Long Yang, Zheng Shen*, Yalei Zhang*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, Suppl.1, pp. 22-30, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634126
    Abstract Lactic acid can not only be used to produce multiple chemicals, but can also be the building block for biodegradable and biocompatible polylactic acid identified as a renewable resource. As a by-product in biodiesel production, the glycerol yield increases with a rapid expansion of biodiesel. However, in the chemical and environmental fields it is still a great challenge to produce lactic acid or methyl lactate from glycerol. Herein, Sn-Beta zeolite was prepared through solid-state ion exchange (Sn-Beta SSIE) and was tested for base-free one-pot catalytic selective oxidation of glycerol into methyl lactate in methanol. The results showed that a maximum… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    A Highly Water-Resistant Soy-Based Bioadhesive with 1,4-Butanediol Diglycidyl Ether and its Application on Plywood

    Kun Li, Xiaona Li, Jing Luo, Jingjing Li, Qiang Gao*, Jianzhang Li*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, Suppl.1, pp. 31-38, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634131
    Abstract The objective of this study was to use soybean meal and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE) to develop a highly water-resistant, soy-based bioadhesive for plywood fabrication. The physical properties and performance characteristics of the resulting adhesive, including solid content, viscosity, water resistance, crystallinity, fracture morphology, thermal behavior, and cracks, were evaluated. The proposed adhesive was compared against the traditional soy adhesive with polyamidoamine-epichlorohydrin (PAE). Results showed that adding 8 g of BDDE into the adhesive formulation improved the solid content up to 32.83% and reduced the viscosity to 27340 mPa·s. The wet shear strength of plywood bonded with the adhesive was… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    Solubilization of Renewable Phosphorus Sources with Organic Acids Produced by Bacillus megaterium

    Małgorzata Wyciszkiewicz, Agnieszka Saeid*, Katarzyna Chojnacka
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, Suppl.1, pp. 39-52, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634132
    Abstract The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of using B. megaterium in solubilization of phosphates from different secondary raw materials, such as fish bones, poultry bones, ashes and phosphorite, by identification of the effect of different doses of phosphorus-bearing materials on the growth of microbial cells and the effectiveness of the solubilization process. Both FTIR as well as SEM-EDX techniques were used to compare the effect of the acids on renewable phosphorus source. Two doses of mentioned materials were used: 2 and 30 g/L. The effect of solubilization was expressed as the solubilization factor (SF, %), defined… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    Ecological Concrete Based on Blast-Furnace Cement with Incorporated Coarse Recycled Concrete Aggregate and Fly Ash Addition

    Wojciech Kubissa1, Roman Jaskulski1, Pavel Reiterman2*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, Suppl.1, pp. 53-61, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634103
    Abstract This article deals with an experimental study concerning the development of concrete mixtures with significant ecological benefits. The studied concrete mixtures were based on blast-furnace cement, with an additional application of supplementary cementitious materials—fly ash, metakaolin, and silica fume and fluidized fly ash. Coarse aggregate in the form of crushed concrete was applied for all studied concrete mixtures. The experimental program was primarily focused on the assessment of the durability properties of the studied mixtures in terms of mechanical tests, absorption tests, chloride migration coefficient tests, water penetration tests, and accelerated carbonation depth tests. The results obtained showed good potential… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    Pretreatment of Wheat Bran for Suitable Reinforcement in Biocomposites

    Atikur Rahman1,3, Chad A. Ulven2, Maren A. Johnson1, Cheyenne Durant1, Khwaja G. Hossain*,1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, Suppl.1, pp. 62-73, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634133
    Abstract Wheat bran, abundant but underutilized, was investigated for its potential as a reinforcement in biocomposites through different pretreatment methods. Pretreatment methods included were dilute sodium hydroxide (NaOH), dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4), liquid hot water (LHW), calcium hydroxide (CaOH), organosolv such as aqueous ethanol (EtOH), and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Changes in chemical composition and fiber characteristics of the treated bran were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Cellulose content increased to 35.1% and 29.6% in brans treated with H2SO4 and NaOH, respectively. The SEM micrographs showed surface cleaning of treated bran while maintaining sufficient… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    Synthesis of Novel Biobased Polyol via Thiol-Ene Chemistry for Rigid Polyurethane Foams

    N. Elbers1, C. K. Ranaweera1, M. Ionescu2, X. Wan2, P. K. Kahol3, Ram K. Gupta1,2*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, Suppl.1, pp. 74-83, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634137
    Abstract The objective of this research is to prepare rigid polyurethane (PU) foams from α-phellandrene, a biobased compound. Two types of polyols were synthesized by reacting α-phellandrene with 2-mercaptoethanol and α-thioglycerol via thiol-ene chemistry route. The completion of the reaction was identified by using FTIR. PU foams from α-phellandrene polyols and commercial polyol were compared with regard to foam characteristics and properties. All the PU foams showed apparent density of 28–39 kg/m3 with closed-cell content above 90%. The highest glass transition temperature of 229 °C and compressive strength of 220 kPa were observed for the polyol synthesized by reacting α-phellandrene and… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    Cardboard-Based Packaging Materials as Renewable Thermal Insulation of Buildings: Thermal and Life-Cycle Performance

    M. Čekon*, K. Struhala, R. Slávik
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, Suppl.1, pp. 84-93, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634135
    Abstract Cardboard-based packaging components represent a material that has significant potential as a renewable source for exploitation in buildings. This study presents the results of thermal and environmental analyses of existing packaging materials compared with standard conventional thermal insulations.
    Experimental measurements were performed to identify the thermal performance of studied cardboard packaging materials. Real-size samples were experimentally tested in laboratory measurements. The thermal resistance and conductivity of all the analyzed samples were measured according to the procedure indicated in the ISO8032 standard. A life-cycle assessment according to ISO 14040 was also performed to evaluate the environmental impacts related to the… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    Examination of a Biobased Carbon Nucleating Agent on Poly(lactic acid) Crystallization

    Michael R. Snowdon1,2, Amar K. Mohanty1,2, Manjusri Misra1,2*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, Suppl.1, pp. 94-105, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634134
    Abstract This article assesses the performance of a biobased carbon as a nucleator using common techniques to stimulate poly(lactic acid) crystallization and enhance the thermal stability of PLA during injection molding. The combination of a biodegradable plasticizer, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), along with biobased carbon-rich pyrolyzed biomass char residue and an industrially available microcrystalline talc, were tested for nucleating agent capabilities at additions of 10 wt%. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data demonstrated that the inclusion of the plasticizer could increase the PLA crystalline content with further improvements when nucleating agent was present. With a higher mold temperature, the PLA crystallinity surpassed 40%… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    Study on Residual Stresses in Unidirectional Flax Fiber/ Vinyl Ester Composites by XRD Technique

    Shanshan Huo, Chad A. Ulven*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, Suppl.1, pp. 106-116, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634136
    Abstract The development of flax fiber reinforced polymer composites with improved properties has been increasingly studied by many researchers because of their sustainability. However, the effects of thermal residual stresses on the interfacial properties of flax composites have not been evaluated or very well understood. In this study, the thermal properties of flax, vinyl ester matrices and their composites were accessed by different techniques, including thermomechanical analyzer, dynamic mechanical analyzer, and X-ray diffraction combined with aluminum particles. The effects of thermal properties of flax fibers and vinyl ester resin systems on the mechanical properties of their biocomposites were studied. The theory… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    Biodegradability of Polyethylene/Hydrolyzed Collagen Blends in Terrestrial and Marine Environmental Conditions

    Monica Puccini*1, Eleonora Stefanelli1, Maurizia Seggiani1, Elena Balestri2, Sandra Vitolo1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, Suppl.1, pp. 117-123, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634138
    Abstract In this study, blends of low-density polyethylene (PE) containing 20 wt% of hydrolyzed collagen (HC) from the leather industry were processed by the film blowing technique. A biodegradation study of these innovative materials was performed by two different biodegradation tests, one in terrestrial environment, the other one under aquatic conditions. Degradation rates were determined for both systems and an environmental degradability parameter was calculated. The results proved the positive influence of hydrolyzed collagen on degradation of polyethylene, but also showed a relatively low biological degradability of PE/HC blends under the applied test conditions. More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    Effect of Acetylation on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Soy Flour Elastomers

    Kendra A. Allen1, Sarah Cady2, David Grewell1*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, Suppl.1, pp. 124-126, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634139
    Abstract Biobased fillers were utilized as components in soy-elastomer composites. Soy flour is lightweight, low cost, and high strength, which makes it an ideal alternative to petroleum-derived fillers. However, poor interfacial adhesion and low dispersion within the polymer matrix are limiting factors for composite performance. Soy flour chemically pretreated by acetylation was compounded with synthetic rubber elastomers. In general, soy flour (as received) concentration in the composite is proportional to the ultimate strength. However, soyelastomer composites with acetylated filler performed similar to the neat elastomer. In addition, the pretreated composite’s thermal stability increased and exhibited less phase seperation compared to the… More >

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