Home / Journals / JRM / Vol.10, No.7, 2022
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In this article, Daša Krapež Tomec and co-authors present research on direct 3D printing on wood surfaces using a commercial FDM 3D printer. The results show that with the right 3D printing settings and surface preparation, sufficient adhesion can be achieved and open new possibilities for the use of 3D printing in wood furniture design.
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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of Natural and Artificial Carbonaceous Substrates on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes

    Jürgen Kern1,*, Judy Libra1, Christian Ammon1, York Neubauer2, Wenceslau Teixeira3
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.7, pp. 1773-1786, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019608
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Biochar Based Materials for a Green Future)
    Abstract The emissions of two greenhouse gases (GHG), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), from six substrates with different carbonaceous content were compared in short and long-term incubation experiments. Three natural soils and three artificial chars were mixed with carbon (C) poor soil (Cambisol) to simulate real conditions after application of char to farmland. The natural soils were a Cambisol, an Anthrosol and a Histosol with C contents of 1.3%, 4.4% and 13.2%, respectively. The three chars produced through thermal conversion of wood chips by hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC), fluidized bed gasification and pyrolysis had C contents of 56.9%, 75.4% and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The Effect of Printing Parameters and Wood Surface Preparation on the Adhesion of Directly 3D-Printed PLA on Wood

    Daša Krapež Tomec, Angela Balzano, Jure Žigon, Milan Šernek, Mirko Kariž*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.7, pp. 1787-1796, 2022, DOI: 10.32604/jrm.2022.019760
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Wood Composites from Renewable Materials)
    Abstract As additive manufacturing technologies advance, new opportunities are opening up for their application in the furniture industry. Wood remains one of the leading raw materials in the furniture industry; therefore, possible options for combining it with 3D printing have been researched. The bonding of 3D-printed polymer parts with wood or 3D printing with wood-plastic composites is already known, but in our research we attempted to directly 3D print polylactic acid (PLA) on wood surfaces. The effect of printing parameters, as well as the surface preparation of wood on the shear strength of the bond between wood and on-printed material was… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A New DOPO-Eugenol Adduct as an Effective Flame Retardant for Epoxy Thermosets with Improved Mechanical Properties

    Daqin Zhang1,2, Chufeng Yang3, Huayang Ran1,2, Juanli Wang1,2,*, Jintao Wan1,2,*, Yuhu Li1,2, Pujun Jin1,2, Daodao Hu1,2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.7, pp. 1797-1811, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018754
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-based Halogen-free Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials)
    Abstract The development of efficient green flame retardants is an important way to realize more sustainable epoxy thermosets and downstream materials. In this work, a monoepoxide is synthesized through O-glycidylation of eugenol, and then reacted with DOPO (9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphophenanthrene-10-oxide) to obtain a new bio-based flame retardant, DOPO-GE. DOPO-GE is blended with a bisphenol A epoxy prepolymer exhibiting good compatibility and DDS (4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulfone) is used as the curing agent to afford epoxy thermosets. Although DOPO-GE leads to the reduced glass transition temperature of the thermosets, the storage modulus increases considerably. The DOPO-GE-modified thermosets exhibit the high thermal stability with the onset thermal decomposition… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Influences of Multi-Component Supplementary Cementitious Materials on the Performance of Metakaolin Based Geopolymer

    Wu Jing1,2,#, Ren Luo3,#, Sha Ding2, Ping Duan3,4,5,6,7,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.7, pp. 1813-1828, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018771
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract In this study, the workability and reaction mechanism of metakaolin (MK) based geopolymer blended with rice husk ash (RHA) and silica fume (SF) was investigated. The prepared samples were subjected to tests including compressive strength and fluidity tests. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) were employed to explore the phase composition and microstructure of geopolymers. The molecular bonding information of geopolymer was provided by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Meanwhile, the porosity of geopolymer was obtained by Mercury intrusion porosimeter (MIP) analysis. The high-activity RHA obtained after calcination at 600°C was used as a supplementary cementitious material to… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Influences of Multi-Component Supplementary Cementitious Materials on the Performance of Metakaolin Based Geopolymer

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Mechanical and Rheological Properties of Bamboo Pulp Fiber Reinforced High Density Polyethylene Composites: Influence of Nano CaCO3 Treatment and Manufacturing Process with Different Pressure Ratings

    Cuicui Wang1, Xin Wei1, Lee M. Smith2, Ge Wang1, Shuangbao Zhang3, Haitao Cheng1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.7, pp. 1829-1844, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018782
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Natural Fibre Composites: Design, Materials Selection and Fabrication)
    Abstract In order to investigate the effect of the relative motion of nano CaCO3 reinforced bamboo pulp fiber (BPF)/HDPE composite components on the mechanical performance, a comparative study was performed. BPF was treated by nano CaCO3 blending (BM) and impregnation modification (IM) technology. The composites were produced using hot press (HPMP), extrusion (EMP) and injection molding process (IMP). The physical morphology of BPF was similar at different manufacturing processes. Compared to the samples manufactured by HPMP, a decrease in the (specific) flexural strength of BPF/HDPE composites and an increase in those of composites treated by nano CaCO3 manufactured by EMP and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Numerical Analysis of Conjugated Heat and Mass Transfer of Helical Hollow Fiber Membrane Tube Bank for Seawater Distillation

    Tao Zeng1,3, Lisheng Deng1,3,*, Jiechao Chen2,*, Hongyu Huang1,3, Hanli Zhuang2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.7, pp. 1845-1858, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018803
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: New Trends in Sustainable Materials for Energy Conversion, CO2 Capture and Pollution Control)
    Abstract A numerical study on the conjugated heat-mass transfer of helical hollow fiber membrane tube bank (HFMTB) for seawater desalination was carried out. Physical and mathematical models of fluid flow, temperature and humidity distribution were constructed to investigate the influences of flow type, Reynolds number, and temperature on the conjugated heat-mass transfer performance of hollow fibers in the distillation membrane module. The conjugated heat-mass transfer characteristics of HFMTB were discussed by utilizing the friction coefficient, Nusselt number (Nu), and Sherwood number (Sh). Results demonstrate that a distillation efficiency enhancement of 29% compared to the straight HFMTB has been detected for four-helical… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Research of Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Composite Material Based on Gypsum and Straw

    Nikola Vavřínová*, Kateřina Stejskalová, Jiří Teslík, Kateřina Kubenková, Jiří Majer
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.7, pp. 1859-1873, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018908
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract This article is focused on the investigation of the mechanical and thermal properties of composite material that could be used for the production of plaster or plasterboards. This composite material is made of gypsum and reinforcing natural fibers. The article verifies whether this natural reinforcement can improve the investigated properties compared to conventional plasters and gypsum plasterboards made of pure gypsum. From this composite material, high-strength plasterboards could then be produced, which meet the higher demands of users than conventional gypsum plasterboards. For their production, natural waste materials would be used efficiently. As part of the development of new building… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Halogen-Free Flame Retarded Poly(Lactic Acid) with an Isosorbide-Derived Polyphosphonate

    Wenwen Guo1,2,3, Wei Cai3, Dong Wang1, Junling Wang4, Xiefei Zhu5,*, Bin Fei2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.7, pp. 1875-1888, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018823
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-based Halogen-free Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials)
    Abstract Fabrication of flame retardants from renewable biomass has aroused extensive interest over the past decade. This work reported a synthesis of isosorbide-derived polyphosphonate (PICPP) as an anti-flammable agent for poly (lactic acid) (PLA). The presence of PICPP notably declined the storage modulus of PLA/PICPP owing to the declined molecular weight of PLA catalyzed by the presence of PICPP. PLA and PLA/PICPP thermally degraded in one stage under either air or nitrogen atmosphere. With increasing the amount of PICPP, the onset thermal decomposition temperature of PLA/PICPP was decreased gradually, owing to the earlier decomposition of PICPP. With only 10 wt% of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Development of Magnetite/Graphene Oxide Hydrogels from Agricultural Wastes for Water Treatment

    Hebat-Allah S. Tohamy, Mohamed El-Sakhawy, Samir Kamel*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.7, pp. 1889-1909, 2022, DOI: 10.32604/jrm.2022.019211
    Abstract A novel magnetic hydrogel loaded with graphene oxide (GO) was developed in this study. Firstly, GO was prepared from bagasse through a single step via oxidation in the presence of ferrocene under muffled atmospheric conditions, followed by the loading of different amounts of magnetite onto GO via co-precipitation reaction of iron onto GO sheets. Finally, the 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid was grafted onto carboxymethyl cellulose in the presence of magnetite GO and N, N′-methylenebisacrylamide as crosslinker yielded hydrogel. The structure, morphological, and thermal behavior of the prepared hydrogels were investigated. In addition, the adsorption performance of Ni(II) ions from aqueous media… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Development of Magnetite/Graphene Oxide Hydrogels from Agricultural Wastes for Water Treatment

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Phytogenic Synthesis of Metal/Metal Oxide Nanoparticles for Degradation of Dyes

    Arpita Roy1,*, H. C. Ananda Murthy2 , Hiwa M. Ahmed3,4, Mohammad Nazmul Islam5, Ram Prasad6,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.7, pp. 1911-1930, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019410
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: New Insights on Nanomaterials for Energy, Environmental and Agricultural Applications)
    Abstract Now-a-days nanotechnology is one of the booming fields for the researchers. With the increase in industrialization mainly textile, paper, medicine, plastic industry, there is an increase in concentration of organic dyes as pollutant. Release of harmful dyes in water bodies has become a serious issue, as most of the dyes are carcinogenic and mutagenic in nature and causes various diseases. Therefore, there is a requirement to find out new approaches for efficient treatment of effluent containing dyes. Nanoparticles are one of the potential solutions to this problem. They can be synthesized from different methods, however synthesis of nanoparticles from different… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Phosphorylated Salicylic Acid as Flame Retardant in Epoxy Resins and Composites

    Lara Greiner1,*, Philipp Kukla2, Sebastian Eibl1, Manfred Döring3
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.7, pp. 1931-1950, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019548
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-based Halogen-free Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials)
    Abstract A novel, versatile flame retardant substructure based on phosphorylated salicylic acid (SCP) is described and used in the synthesis of new flame retardants for HexFlow® RTM6, a high-performance epoxy resin used in resin transfer molding processes as composite matrix. The starting material salicylic acid can be obtained from natural sources. SCP as reactive phosphorus chloride is converted with a novolak, a novolak containing 9, 10-dihydro-9- oxa-10-phospha-phenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) substituents or DOPO-hydroquinone to flame retardants with sufficient thermal stability and high char yield. Additionally, these flame retardants are soluble in the resin as well as react into the epoxy network. The determined… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effects of Planting Density of Rubber Tree Clone (RRIM 2020 Clone and RRIM 2025 Clone) Wood to Particleboard Properties

    Juliana Abdul Halip1,2, Syeed SaifulAzry Osman Al-Edrus1,*, Seng Hua Lee1,*, Paridah Md Tahir1, Nor Yuziah Mohd Yunus3, Mohd Sapuan Salit1, Ahmad Ilyas Rushdan4,5
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.7, pp. 1951-1960, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.016025
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract The depletion of log resources encourages research into alternative ways to sustain the wood supply. Therefore, the 4-year-old Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia (RRIM) clones series, RRIM 2020 and RRIM 2025, were chosen as potential raw materials for particleboard in this study. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of planting density and rubber tree clones on the mechanical and physical properties of single-layer particleboard. The planting densities used were low, moderate-low, moderate-high, and high, representing 500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 trees/ha, respectively. Prior to manufacturing, the RRIM 2000 series clone trees were harvested, cut, chipped, flaked,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Study on Properties of Blue-Brick Masonry Materials for Historical Buildings

    Shaochun Ma1,2,*, Lin Wang1, Peng Bao1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.7, pp. 1961-1978, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018755
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Research and Innovations in Engineered Timber and Mass Timber Products for Sustainable Built-Environment)
    Abstract There are a large number of historic buildings which were mainly made of blue-brick masonry in today’s world. However, for the natural and man-made reasons, these historic buildings have been damaged in different degrees. In order to protect historic buildings more scientifically and learn about the preservation state of existing historic buildings, it is necessary to ascertain the material properties of blue brick in historic buildings. The article takes the blue bricks of historical buildings in Kaifeng area of the Central Plains as an example to study. Through the analysis of physical properties, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Study on Properties of Blue-Brick Masonry Materials for Historical Buildings

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Monolayer MoS2/n-Si Heterostructure Schottky Solar Cell

    Omar Salih Omar*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.7, pp. 1979-1988, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018765
    Abstract Monolayer MoS2 has a promising optoelectronics property, with a bandgap in the visible range; the material is a potential candidate for solar cell applications. In this work, we grew MoS2 monolayers using a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition approach. To produce uniform wafer-scale MoS2 monolayer films, precursors molybdenum dioxide (MoO2) and sulfur (S) are utilized. Atomic force microscopy was used to quantify the thickness of the monolayers, and the result was validated by Raman spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to confirm the crystalline quality of the monolayers, and photoluminescence spectroscopy was used to evaluate their optical properties. We were… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Tensile and Stress Analysis of Hybrid Composite Prosthetic Socket Reinforced with Natural Fibers

    Noor K. Faheed*, Qahtan A. Hamad, Jawad K. Oleiwi
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.7, pp. 1989-2013, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017573
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Natural Fibre Composites: Design, Materials Selection and Fabrication)
    Abstract Natural fibers and their composites are the evolving movements in material science, and with that, the utmost use of plant-based fibers has become the focus of this research. Sisal and cotton natural fibers were used to construct a prosthetic socket as an attempt to substitute material currently available in the manufacturing of sockets. The vacuum bagging technique was adopted to produce a below-knee socket. The influence of different fiber layering sequences on the volumetric and mechanical characteristics was estimated experimentally and numerically. Mechanical tensile tests were used to assess laminated specimens, such as tensile strength, young modulus, and elongation percentage.… More >

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