Table of Content

Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications

Submission Deadline: 01 December 2021 (closed)

Guest Editors

Francisco Rodríguez Félix, Professor, Department of Food Research and Graduate Program (DIPA), University of Sonora, Mexico
Dr. Francisco Rodríguez Félix has received her Ph.D. (2009) degree from University of Sonora, Mexico. Currently, he is a full-time professor of the Department of Food Research and Graduate Program (DIPA), at the University of Sonora, Mexico, with expertise in micro and nano-materials science. Also, he is expert in techniques of characterization of materials as FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM, DRX, DSC-TGA, among others. Since December 2018, he was the coordinator of the Postgraduate Program in Food Sciences and Technology until January 2020, at the University of Sonora, Mexico.

José Agustín Tapia Hernández, Professor, Department of Chemistry Biology, University of Sonora, Mexico
Dr. José Agustín Tapia Hernández received his MSc (2015) and PhD (2019) in Department of Food Research and Graduate Program (DIPA) at the University of Sonora. He is currently a Professor in the Department of Chemistry Biology at University of Sonora, Mexico. His area of research is micro and nano-materials, materials science and characterization of natural compounds with biological activity, for application in food and health areas. He is currently focused on the development of metal nanoparticles with antimicrobial and anticancer activity obtained from agri-food waste material.

Summary

This special issue aims to publish high-quality articles focused on renewable materials obtained from agricultural waste and by-products with application in the areas of food, health and agriculture. Materials obtained from straw, bagasse, peel for obtaining proteins, polysaccharides, lignin, starch, cellulose and derivatives, prolaminsare are of interest to this issue, but are not limited. Among the applications is the manufacture of nanomaterials (nanoparticles, nanofibers), materials in general and for tissue engineering, release systems, encapsulation of nutraceuticals, pigments, drugs and antioxidants, manufacture of solar cells, wound dressing, edible films and packaging, coatings, food sensors, among others. 


Keywords

Renovable materials, biopolymers, agricultural by-product, waste, cellulose and derivatives, lignin, starch, proteins, prolamins, polysaccharides, material science, nanomaterials, nanofiber, nanoparticles, food, health, agriculture applications.

Published Papers


  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Dynamic Behaviour of Pond Ash Mixed with Coir and Crumb Rubber

    Ashish Malik, Sanjay Kumar Singh
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.3, pp. 1271-1291, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.023084
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract An experimental program was conducted to determine the dynamic properties of pond ash (PA) and pond ash mixed with admixtures like crumb rubber (CR) and coir fiber (CF) which are wastes of different industries. Additives CR and CF were mixed separately with pond ash in a percentage ranging from 0%–20% at an interval of 5% and 0%–2% at an interval of 0.5% by weight of pond ash, respectively. Dynamic properties (Shear modulus, Number of cycles to initiate liquefaction, Degradation index and Damping ratio) for pond ash mixes were determined using strain-controlled cyclic tri-axial apparatus. The shear strain was kept constant… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Valorization of Aloe barbadensis Miller. (Aloe vera) Processing Waste

    Jeltzlin Semerel, Nigel John, Wim Dehaen, Pedro Fardim
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.3, pp. 1031-1061, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.023449
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract Aloe vera plant is known worldwide for its medicinal properties and application in gel-based products such as shampoo, soap, and sunscreen. However, the demand for these gel-based products has led to a surplus production of Aloe vera processing waste. An Aloe vera gel processing facility could generate up to 4000 kg of Aloe vera waste per month. Currently the Aloe vera waste is being disposed to the landfill or used as fertilizer. A sustainable management system for the Aloe vera processing waste should be considered, due to the negative societal and environmental impacts of the currents waste disposal methods. Therefore,… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Valorization of <i>Aloe barbadensis</i> Miller. (<i>Aloe vera</i>) Processing Waste

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Water-Based Environmentally Friendly Pesticide Formulations Based on Cyclodextrin/Pesticide Loading System

    Xinyu Guo, Zhe Sun, Rui Zhao, Hongyi Shang, Jiangyu Liu, Yong Xu, Laihua Liu, Xuemin Wu
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.2, pp. 777-789, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.022811
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract Difenoconazole (DIF) is a representative variety of broad-spectrum triazole fungicides and liposoluble pesticides. However, the water solubility of DIF is so poor that its application is limited in plant protection. In addition, the conventional formulations of DIF always contain abundant organic solvents, which may cause pollution of the environment. In this study, two DIF/cyclodextrins (CDs) inclusion complexes (ICs) were successfully prepared, which were DIF/β-CD IC and DIF/hydroxypropyl-β-CD IC (DIF/HP-β-CD IC). The effect of cyclodextrins on the water solubility and the antifungal effect of liposoluble DIF pesticide were investigated. According to the phase solubility test, the molar ratio and apparent stability… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Elevated Temperature Properties of Bamboo Shaving Reinforced Geopolymer Composites

    Xinli Zhang, Jiayu Zhang, Zuhua Zhang, Yiqiang Wu, Yingfeng Zuo
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 27-40, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2023.023400
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract Geopolymer is a new alternative cement binder to produce concrete. In the present study, a novel geopolymer composites containing bamboo shaving (0–2 wt.%) were fabricated and exposed to the temperatures of 200°C, 400°C, 600°C and 800°C. Physical properties, micro-structure, and mechanical strengths of the geopolymer composites were evaluated before and after heating in order to understand their thermal properties, which are essential for the use as building materials. As the temperature rises, the drying shrinkage and apparent porosity of the composites increase, while the compressive and bending strengths decrease. At the temperature range of 200°C–800°C, the residual compressive strength rates of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Study on the Structural Characteristics and Physical and Mechanical Properties of Phoebe bournei Thinning Wood

    Jiabiao Wu, Jiayin Liang, Muyang Chen, Siqi Zheng, Jianying Xu
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.11, pp. 3025-3039, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019989
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract The artificial afforestation of precious Phoebe bournei has been carried out in China. During the cultivation process, thinning wood will be produced. The properties of thinning wood might vary greatly with matured wood and require evaluation for better utilization. The objective of the present study aims to determine the wood structure, fiber morphology, and physical and mechanical properties of the Phoebe bournei thinning wood to help us understand the wood properties and improve its utility value. Three 14-year-old Phoebe bournei were cut from Jindong Forestry Farm of Hunan Province, China. The wood structure and fiber morphology were observed and analyzed… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Study on the Structural Characteristics and Physical and Mechanical Properties of <i>Phoebe bournei</i> Thinning Wood

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Bamboo Shaving Geopolymer Composite

    Jiayu Zhang, Zhenyang Li, Xinli Zhang
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.11, pp. 2871-2881, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019373
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract Geopolymers are inorganic aluminosilicate materials, which have been a great research interest as a material for sustainable development. However, they possess relatively low toughness properties similar to brittle solids. The limitation may be altered by fiber reinforcement to improve their strength and toughness. This research describes the synthesis of bamboo shaving (BS) reinforced geopolymer composites and the characterization of their mechanical properties. The effect of BS content (0–2 wt. %) on the physical and mechanical properties and microstructure of metakaolin based geopolymer paste were investigated. The workability, setting time, bulk density, apparent porosity, thermal conductivity, compressive strength, flexural strength, scanning… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Hydrophobic Poplar Prepared via High Voltage Electric Field (HVEF) with Copper as Electrode Plate

    Jianxin Cui, Zehui Ju, Lu Hong, Biqing Shu, Xiaoning Lu
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.11, pp. 2907-2919, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019270
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract In order to improve hydrophobic characteristics which will affect the service performance of fast-growing poplar due to growing bacteria in the humid environment. In this study, a simple method was proposed to treat poplar via the high voltage electric field (HVEF) with copper as the electrode plate. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and contact angle tester were adopted to evaluate the surface morphology, surface group of poplar, crystallinity and wettability under HVEF. It was found by SEM that a large number of copper particles were uniformly attached to the surface of poplar. In… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Digestibility, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Pecan Nutshell (Carya illioinensis) Extracts

    María Janeth Rodríguez-Roque, Carmen Lizette Del-Toro-Sánchez, Janet Madeline Chávez-Ayala, Ricardo Iván González-Vega, Liliana Maribel Pérez-Pérez, Esteban Sánchez-Chávez, Nora Aideé Salas-Salazar, Juan Manuel Soto-Parra, Rey David Iturralde-García, María Antonia Flores-Córdova
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.10, pp. 2569-2580, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.021163
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract Phenolic compounds are related to high biological activity, avoiding oxidation in food and human systems. Nutshells are by-products derived from the pecan nut processing that contain important amounts of phenols which biological activity must be studied. This research aimed to evaluate the antioxidant (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and hemolysis) and anti-inflammatory activities of shell extracts from pecan nuts harvested during the crop production cycle 2018 and 2019, as well as the in vitro digestibility of their phenolic compounds, including flavonoids. Results showed that extracts from the crop production cycle 2018 obtained the highest yield, while those from 2019 contained the highest… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Digestibility, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Pecan Nutshell (<i>Carya illioinensis</i>) Extracts

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Pathways for Sustainable Utilization of Waste Chicken Eggshell

    Omojola Awogbemi, Daramy Vandi Von Kallon, Victor Sunday Aigbodion
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.8, pp. 2217-2246, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019152
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract Chicken eggshell is one of the most common wastes generated from households, restaurants and other food processing outlets. Waste Chicken Eggshells (WCES) also constitutes an environmental nuisance and ends up discarded at dumping site with no consideration of further usage. The main constituent of WCES is calcium carbonate from which calcium or calcium oxide can be extracted for various applications. This current effort reviews recently published literature on the diverse applications of WCES. The considered utilization avenues include catalysts for biofuel production, construction industry, wastewater purification, industrial sector, food industry, medical, and agricultural applications. The specific areas of application apart… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Pathways for Sustainable Utilization of Waste Chicken Eggshell

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Research of Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Composite Material Based on Gypsum and Straw

    Nikola Vavřínová, Kateřina Stejskalová, Jiří Teslík, Kateřina Kubenková, Jiří Majer
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.7, pp. 1859-1873, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018908
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract This article is focused on the investigation of the mechanical and thermal properties of composite material that could be used for the production of plaster or plasterboards. This composite material is made of gypsum and reinforcing natural fibers. The article verifies whether this natural reinforcement can improve the investigated properties compared to conventional plasters and gypsum plasterboards made of pure gypsum. From this composite material, high-strength plasterboards could then be produced, which meet the higher demands of users than conventional gypsum plasterboards. For their production, natural waste materials would be used efficiently. As part of the development of new building… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effects of Planting Density of Rubber Tree Clone (RRIM 2020 Clone and RRIM 2025 Clone) Wood to Particleboard Properties

    Juliana Abdul Halip, Syeed SaifulAzry Osman Al-Edrus, Seng Hua Lee, Paridah Md Tahir, Nor Yuziah Mohd Yunus, Mohd Sapuan Salit, Ahmad Ilyas Rushdan
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.7, pp. 1951-1960, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.016025
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract The depletion of log resources encourages research into alternative ways to sustain the wood supply. Therefore, the 4-year-old Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia (RRIM) clones series, RRIM 2020 and RRIM 2025, were chosen as potential raw materials for particleboard in this study. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of planting density and rubber tree clones on the mechanical and physical properties of single-layer particleboard. The planting densities used were low, moderate-low, moderate-high, and high, representing 500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 trees/ha, respectively. Prior to manufacturing, the RRIM 2000 series clone trees were harvested, cut, chipped, flaked,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Influences of Multi-Component Supplementary Cementitious Materials on the Performance of Metakaolin Based Geopolymer

    Wu Jing, Ren Luo, Sha Ding, Ping Duan
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.7, pp. 1813-1828, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018771
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract In this study, the workability and reaction mechanism of metakaolin (MK) based geopolymer blended with rice husk ash (RHA) and silica fume (SF) was investigated. The prepared samples were subjected to tests including compressive strength and fluidity tests. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) were employed to explore the phase composition and microstructure of geopolymers. The molecular bonding information of geopolymer was provided by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Meanwhile, the porosity of geopolymer was obtained by Mercury intrusion porosimeter (MIP) analysis. The high-activity RHA obtained after calcination at 600°C was used as a supplementary cementitious material to… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Influences of Multi-Component Supplementary Cementitious Materials on the Performance of Metakaolin Based Geopolymer

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    One Step Regioselective Acylation of Polyphenolic Wood Extractive and Its Application for Wood Treatment

    Wissem Sahmim, Georges Eid, Febrina Dellarose Boer, Hubert Chapuis, Philippe Gérardin, Christine Gérardin-Charbonnier
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.6, pp. 1491-1503, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.016364
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract This study evaluated the methods of grafting commercial catechin with fatty acids, namely capric acid (C10), lauric acid (C12), and myristic acid (C14) through esterification. Specimens of beech wood (Fagus sylvatica L.) were impregnated with catechin and modified catechin-fatty acids, separately, at a 5% concentration diluted in ethanol using vacuum pressure treatment and subjected to leaching. The weight percentage gain before leaching (WPG), after leaching (WPGAL), and weight loss due to leaching (PL) were investigated. Both leached and unleached samples were tested against white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor) in Petri-dishes for twelve weeks. Results show that samples treated with modified catechin-fatty… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    One Step Regioselective Acylation of Polyphenolic Wood Extractive and Its Application for Wood Treatment

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Experimental Study on Improvement Effects of Completely Weathered Phyllite Using Red Clay and Cement for High-Speed Railway Embankments

    Xiushao Zhao, Jianglong Rao, Qijing Yang, Yu Rong, Zhitao Fu, Zhiyao Wang, Zixi Chen
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.5, pp. 1287-1305, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017473
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract Completely weathered phyllite (CWP) has the characteristics of difficult compaction, low shear strength after compaction and large settlement after construction. The traditional improvement method using a single agent of red clay or cement for CWP satisfies the subgrade requirements for ordinary railway, but cannot meet the requirements of immediate strength and long-term post-construction settlement of high-speed railway at the same time. A series of experimental investigations were undertaken for the blended CWP soils, with three additives used. The first additive was red clay, the second was cement and the third was a combination of both red clay and cement at… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Experimental Study on Improvement Effects of Completely Weathered Phyllite Using Red Clay and Cement for High-Speed Railway Embankments

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    A Review of Various Sources of Chitin and Chitosan in Nature

    Benedict Terkula Iber, Nor Azman Kasan, Donald Torsabo, Jenifer Wese Omuwa
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 1097-1123, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018142
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract Chitin was first discovered by its name from the Greek word “chiton”, which means “mail coat”. It is indeed a polysaccharide made up of naturally occurring acetyl-D-glucosamine monomers. Hatchett was the first researcher who extracted chitin from the shells of mollusks (crabs and lobsters), prawns, and crayfish in 1799. Later in 1811, Henri Braconnot discovered chitin in the cell walls of mushrooms and called it “fungine”. Chitin and chitosan are abundant in the biosphere as essential components of many organisms’ exoskeletons and as by-products of the global seafood industry. The biopolymer must be deacetylated before chitosan can be produced. It… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Production of Bio-Calcium Oxide Derived from Hatchery Eggshell Waste Using an Industrial-Scale Car Bottom Furnace

    Ajchara Imkum Putkham, Suwanan Chuakham, Yuwadee Chaiyachet, Tanapon Suwansopa, Apipong Putkham
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 1137-1151, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018560
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract The valorization of eggshell waste as bio-calcium oxide is crucial for pollution prevention and supporting sustainable development. There are several reports on the thermal conversion of eggshell waste to calcium oxide for the partial or complete substitution of natural lime applications. However, this paper reports the thermal decomposition of large amounts of hatchery eggshell waste on an industrial-scale car bottom furnace for the first time. The hatchery eggshell waste was sundried and placed into five stacked trays in the car bottom furnace. The calcination of the eggshell waste was conducted at 900°C for 3 and 4 h under an atmosphere… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Production of Bio-Calcium Oxide Derived from Hatchery Eggshell Waste Using an Industrial-Scale Car Bottom Furnace

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of Mitigating Strength Retrogradation of Alkali Accelerator by the Synergism of Sodium Sulfate and Waste Glass Powder

    Yongdong Xu, Tingshu He
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.11, pp. 1991-1999, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.015931
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract This work aims to utilize waste glass powder (WGP) as a plementary material to mitigate the strength shrinkage caused by the alkaline accelerator. Waste glass power was used to replace cement by 0%, 10%, and 20% to evaluate waste glass powder on the alkaline accelerator’s strength retrogradation. The results show that the strength improvement effect of unitary glass powder is inconspicuous. Innovative methods have been proposed to use sodium sulfate and waste glass powder synergism, using the activity of amorphous silica in glass powder. Compared with the reference group, the compressive strength of 28d mortar increases by 67% when the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Highly Efficient Adsorption of P-Xylene from Aqueous Solutions by Hierarchical Nanoporous Biochar Derived from Crab Shell

    Yingna Chen, Hailong Zhang, Jian Guo, Lu Cai, Yaning Wang, Xinxin Yao, Wendong Song, Lili Ji
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.10, pp. 1741-1755, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.015924
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract The global consumption of p-xylene (PX) for the production of polymers has raised serious concerns about its impact on the environment. As various reports have shown the risks that PX could pose to human health, research into cost-effective remedial methods to remove PX from the environment has gained attraction. In this work, a hierarchical porous crab shell biochar (KCS) was synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for its effi- ciency to remove PX from aqueous solution. The characterizations of KCS, including the porous structure, surface functional group, phase structure, and surface morphology, were discussed by N2 adsorption-desorption, FTIR, XRD, and SEM. Batch… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Highly Efficient Adsorption of P-Xylene from Aqueous Solutions by Hierarchical Nanoporous Biochar Derived from Crab Shell

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Structure, Dynamic-Mechanical and Acoustic Properties of Oil Palm Trunk Modified by Melamine Formaldehyde

    Tetti Novalina Manik, Sulung Apria Nuki, Nur Aini Fauziyah, Mashuri, Mochamad Zainuri, Darminto
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.9, pp. 1647-1660, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.016089
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract The performance of oil palm trunk wastes from Banjarbaru of South Kalimantan was improved with the help of chemical modification in a two-step treatment. The first was formalization with formaldehyde solution with varying pH, and the second was impregnation with melamine-formaldehyde resin under 5 bar pressure for an hour. In these processes, the samples were cured at 120°C for 10 min and then dried in an oven at (103 ± 2)°C in order to attain a moisture content of less than 6%. These treatments improved the physical properties (density, moisture content, and volume swelling), mechanical resistance, dynamic-mechanical and acoustic performance… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Structure, Dynamic-Mechanical and Acoustic Properties of Oil Palm Trunk Modified by Melamine Formaldehyde

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Facile Preparation of a Porous Biochar Derived from Waste Crab Shell with High Removal Performance for Diesel

    Xiao Han, Zhaodi Wu, Yi Yang, Jian Guo, Yaning Wang, Lu Cai, Wendong Song, Lili Ji
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.8, pp. 1377-1391, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.015076
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract In this study, a porous biochar material derived from waste crab shell was prepared by one-step hydrothermal carbonization and acetic acid activation method at 180°C, which was characterized by SEM, BET, XRD and FTIR. The results show that the as-prepared crab shell biochar (CSB) exhibits a fluffy irregular layered structure with abundant pores and oxygen-containing functional groups, which can facilitate the adsorption of diesel using CSB. In addition, batch adsorption experiments had been performed, effects of initial diesel concentration, adsorption time, adsorbent dosage and pH on the diesel adsorption using CSB were analyzed, which could be observed that CSB has… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Fiber Loading of Date Palm and Kenaf Reinforced Epoxy Composites: Tensile, Impact and Morphological Properties

    Syed Waheedullah Ghori, G. Srinivasa Rao
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.7, pp. 1283-1292, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.014987
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract Date palm fiber (DPF) and kenaf fiber were reinforced in epoxy having various fiber loading 40%, 50%, and 60% by weight. These hybrid samples were manufactured by hot press technique and then characterized for tensile, impact, and morphological behavior to evaluate the ratio of fibers in the hybrid composites; the addition of kenaf improved the tensile properties, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed the interfacial bonding of fiber/matrix, and dispersion and void content in composites. Impact test studies reflected the effect of natural fiber with epoxy, level of stress transfer from matrix to reinforced material, and reinforced material’s role in absorbing… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Fiber Loading of Date Palm and Kenaf Reinforced Epoxy Composites: Tensile, Impact and Morphological Properties

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Extraction Hydrolysates from Larimichthys Polyactis Swim Bladder Using Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Ling Pan , Yubo Tao, Peng Li
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.6, pp. 1099-1109, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.014683
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract As a kind of biopolymer, hydrolysates of fish swim bladder, safer than those of land mammals, are widely used in food, cosmetics as well as pharmaceutical and biomedical fields for their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and weak antigenicity. To enhance hydrolysate production, in this paper, the papain and alcalase hydrolysis processes of larimichthys polyactis swim bladder were optimized with orthogonal experiments. With 89.5% hydrolysate yield, the optimal processing conditions for alcalase were solid-liquid ratio of 1:30, enzyme concentration of 0.7%, and extraction time of 6 h. As for papain, under the optimal processing conditions: solid-liquid ratio of 1:20, enzyme concentration of 0.5%,… More >

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