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Black liquor, abundant waste from paper industry and sodium alginate, were employed as renewable precursors to prepare magnetically monolithic hierarchically porous carbons in a facile manner. The resulting monoliths possessed interconnected micro/macroporous structure, strong magnetic properties, high mechanical stability, and show good adsorption performance for removal of lead ions with good recyclability.

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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Soy Protein Isolate Non-Isocyanates Polyurethanes (NIPU) Wood Adhesives

    Xinyi Chen1,2, Antonio Pizzi1,*, Xuedong Xi1,2, Xiaojian Zhou2, Emmanuel Fredon1, Christine Gerardin3
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.6, pp. 1045-1057, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.015066
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable and Biosourced Adhesives)
    Abstract Soy-protein isolate (SPI) was used to prepare non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) thermosetting adhesives for wood panels by reacting it with dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and hexamethylene diamine. Both linear as well as branched oligomers were obtained and identified, indicating how such oligomer structures could further cross-link to form a hardened network. Unusual structures were observed, namely carbamic acid-derived urethane linkages coupled with lactam structures. The curing of the adhesive was followed by thermomechanical analysis (TMA). It appeared to follow a two stages process: First, at a lower temperature (maximum 130°C), the growth of linear oligomers occurred, finally forming a physically entangled network.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Novel Magnetically Interconnected Micro/Macroporous Structure of Monolithic Porous Carbon Adsorbent Derived from Sodium Alginate and Wasted Black Liquor and Its Adsorption Performance**

    Parichart Onsri1, Decha Dechtrirat2,3,4, Patcharakamon Nooeaid5, Apiluck Eiad-ua6, Pongsaton Amornpitoksuk1,7, Supanna Techasakul4, Ahmad Taufiq8, Laemthong Chuenchom1,7,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.6, pp. 1059-1074, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.013362
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable materials for sustainable development)
    Abstract The novel and facile preparation of magnetically interconnected micro/ macroporous structure of monolithic porous carbon adsorbent (MPCA) were designed and presented herein. The synthesis was achieved via conventional freeze-drying and pyrolysis processes. In this study, sodium alginate and wasted black liquor were employed as starting precursors. Sodium alginate acts as a template of materials, whereas black liquor, the wasted product from the paper industry with plentiful of lignin content and alkaline solution, played an essential role in the reinforcement and activation of porosity for the resulting materials. Moreover, both the precursors were well dissolved in Fe3+ solution, providing a simple… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Healing Effect and Underlying Mechanism of Silver Nanoparticles Prepared Using Carboxymethyl Chitosan under Solar Irradiation

    Yi Long1,#,* , Chunling Zhang2,#,*, Lan Chen3,#, Tietao Di2, Lu Chen2, Lisha Tang2, Kaizhong Luo2, Yu Yan1, Pingzhen Tong2, Jie Xiang4
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.6, pp. 1075-1085, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.014555
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Current Advances in Green Nanomaterials Applications)
    Abstract In our previous study, silver nanoparticles were prepared using AgNO3 and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) which is commercially available with solar irradiation. In this study, the efficacy and safety of silver nanoparticles prepared by this method were evaluated for healing wounds in rats with diabetes. We also attempted to determine the underlying mechanism and influencing factors of the silver nanomaterial preparation method. Compared with growth factors, silver nanoparticles exhibit better healing effects for rats with diabetes. No remnant silver ions were detected in the major organs of these rats after the application of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles prepared using CMCS are… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Films from Palmyra Sugar

    Budhi Priyanto1,2,*, Retno Asih1, Irma Septi Ardiani1, Anna Zakiyatul Laila1, Khoirotun Nadiyyah1, Bima Romadhon3, Sarayut Tunmee4, Hideki Nakajima4, Triwikantoro1, Yoyok Cahyono1, Darminto1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.6, pp. 1087-1098, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.014466
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: New Trends in Sustainable Materials for Energy Conversion, CO2 Capture and Pollution Control)
    Abstract A simple, highly reproducible, and environmentally friendly method is a considered approach in generating renewable energy materials. Here, hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C) films have been successfully prepared from palmyra liquid sugar, employing spin-coating and spraying methods. Compared with the former method, the latter shows a significance in producing a better homogeneity in particle size and film thickness. The obtained films have a thickness of approximately 1000 to 100 nm and contain an sp2 hexagonal structure (~70%) and sp3 tetrahedral configuration (~30%) of carbons. The introduction of boron (B) and nitrogen (N) as dopants has created the local structural modification of… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Films from Palmyra Sugar

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Extraction Hydrolysates from Larimichthys Polyactis Swim Bladder Using Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Ling Pan1 , Yubo Tao2,*, Peng Li1,2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.6, pp. 1099-1109, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.014683
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract As a kind of biopolymer, hydrolysates of fish swim bladder, safer than those of land mammals, are widely used in food, cosmetics as well as pharmaceutical and biomedical fields for their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and weak antigenicity. To enhance hydrolysate production, in this paper, the papain and alcalase hydrolysis processes of larimichthys polyactis swim bladder were optimized with orthogonal experiments. With 89.5% hydrolysate yield, the optimal processing conditions for alcalase were solid-liquid ratio of 1:30, enzyme concentration of 0.7%, and extraction time of 6 h. As for papain, under the optimal processing conditions: solid-liquid ratio of 1:20, enzyme concentration of 0.5%,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Experimental Study on the Mechanical Performance of Mortise-Tenon Joints Reinforced with Replaceable Flat-Steel Jackets

    Hongmin Li1,*, Hongxing Qiu2, Wenbo Wang3
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.6, pp. 1111-1125, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.014722
    Abstract The mortise-tenon joint is an important hub transmitting and distributing external loads for load-bearing components (beams, columns et al.) in the ancient-timber frame structure system. However, the conventional steel hoop reinforcement methods often insert wood screws into the timber components. When the reinforced joint rotates greatly, the anchoring failure of the screws will cause damage to the timber joint. To solve this problem, this study proposes a detachable and replaceable non-destructive flat-steel jacket reinforcement method in which horizontal flat steel is placed in the center of the joint, and the bolt is extended to the outside of the timber beam.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The Application of Cellulose Nanocrystals Modified with Succinic Anhydride under the Microwave Irradiation for Preparation of Polylactic Acid Nanocomposites

    Ewa Szefer*, Agnieszka Leszczyńska, Edyta Hebda, Krzysztof Pielichowski
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.6, pp. 1127-1142, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.014584
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Nanocellulose and Nanocellulose-Derived Functional Materials)
    Abstract The aim of this work was to use cellulose nanocrystals that were obtained by hydrolysis in phosphoric acid solution and further modified with succinic anhydride in the microwave field for PLA reinforcement. A series of all-bionanocomposites containing unmodified and surface modified cellulose nanocrystals with CNC content in the range of 1–3 %w.t. were obtained by melt blending and tested by XRD, SEM, DSC and DMA to investigate the effect of surface esterification of CNCs on the structure, morphology, dynamic mechanical properties of bionanocomposites, as well as phase transitions of PLA in the presence of cellulosic nanofiller. DMA investigations showed the… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    The Application of Cellulose Nanocrystals Modified with Succinic Anhydride under the Microwave Irradiation for Preparation of Polylactic Acid Nanocomposites

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Nodes Effect on the Bending Performance of Laminated Bamboo Lumber Unit

    Yiwei Xuan1,3, Haitao Li1,*, Zhemin Bei1, Zhenhua Xiong2, Rodolfo Lorenzo4, Ileana Corbi5, Ottavia Corbi5
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.6, pp. 1143-1156, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.015292
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable building materials and properties)
    Abstract This research studied the ultimate bearing capacity of laminated bamboo lumber (LBL) unit and thereby calculated the maximum bending moment. The load-displacement chart for all specimens was obtained. Then the flexural capacity of members with and without bamboo nodes in the middle section was coMPared. The bending experiment phenomenon of LBL unit was concluded. Different failure modes of bending components were analysed and concluded. Finally, the bending behaviour of LBL units is coMPared with other bamboo and timber products. It is shown that the average ultimate load of BS members is 866.1 N, the average flexural strength is 101 MPa,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of Ultraviolet Aging on the Bonding and Tensile Properties of Polymer-Cement Composite

    Zhihang Wang1,*, Jinyu Xu1,2, Xin Meng1, Conigjin Zhu1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.6, pp. 1157-1168, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.014878
    Abstract In this paper, the specimens of polymer-cement composites after 1 d, 7 d, 15 d, and 30 d aging without aging and UV aging are subjected to fixed extension test and tensile test. By observing the mode of the composite in the fixed-elongation test, and measuring the elastic recovery rate, tensile strength, elongation at break, peak tensile strain, tensile toughness and pre-peak tensile toughness of the composite, the effects of UV aging on the bonding and the tensile properties of the composite were studied. And combining with scanning electron microscopy experiments, the micro-mechanism of the effect of ultraviolet aging on… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Experimental and Theoretical Study on the Flexural Behavior of Recycled Concrete Beams Reinforced with GFRP Bars

    Xinzhan Chen1, Xiangqing Kong1,2,*, Ying Fu2,*, Wanting Sun1, Renguo Guan2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.9, No.6, pp. 1169-1188, 2021, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.014809
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recycled Concrete Towards a Sustainable Society)
    Abstract This paper experimentally investigated the flexural behavior of reinforced recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) beams reinforced with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars. A total of twelve beams were built and tested up to failure under four-point bending. The main parameters were reinforcement ratio (0.38%, 0.60%, and 1.17%), recycled aggregate replacement ratio (R = 0, 50%, and 100%) and longitudinal reinforcement types (GFRP and steel). The flexural capacity, failure modes, flexibility deformation, reinforcement strains and crack distribution of the tested beams were investigated and compared with the calculation models of American code ACI 440.1-R-15, Canadian code CSA S806-12 and ISIS-M03-07. The tested… More >

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