Vol.8, No.10, 2020-Table of Contents
  • Impregnated Paper-Based Decorative Laminates Prepared from Lignin-Substituted Phenolic Resins
  • Abstract High Pressure Laminates (HPL) panels consist of stacks of self-gluing paper sheets soaked with phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins. An important requirement for such PFs is that they must rapidly penetrate and saturate the paper pores. Partially substituting phenol with bio-based phenolic chemicals like lignin changes the physico-chemical properties of the resin and affects its ability to penetrate the paper. In this study, PF formulations containing different proportions of lignosulfonate and kraft lignin were used to prepare paper-based laminates. The penetration of a Kraft paper sheet was characterized by a recently introduced, new device measuring the conductivity between both sides of the… More
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  • Effects of Biochar Particle Size on Methane Emissions from Rice Cultivation
  • Abstract Biochar amendment is generally recognized as an effective mitigation option of methane (CH4) emissions from rice cultivation. Although its mitigation mechanisms are not well understood, the potential relevance of surface area and porosity of biochar has been discussed. This study aimed to evaluate the application of different biochar particle sizes on CH4 production, oxidation, and emissions from rice cultivation in a clay loam soil, based on the assumption that porosity and surface area of biochar are directly related to its mitigation effects. Rice was grown under greenhouse conditions for two growing seasons, either with 0.5–2 mm (small, SB) or with… More
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  • Review on the Application of Bamboo-Based Materials in Construction Engineering
  • Abstract Due to the continuously increasing demand for building materials across the world, it is necessary to use renewable materials in place of the existing nonrenewable materials in construction projects. Bamboo is a fast-growing flowering plant that may be used as a renewable material in construction. The use of bamboo in the construction of buildings can improve its long-term carbon fixation capacity and economic benefits. Although bamboo has the advantages of superior performance, low carbon content, high energy-saving and emission-reducing capacity, bamboo is an anisotropic material, which has many factors affecting its material performance, large variability of material performance, lack of… More
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  • Analysis of the Mechanism and Effectiveness of Lignin in Improving the High-Temperature Thermal Stability of Asphalt
  • Abstract The use of lignin, which is a by-product of the pulp and paper industry, in the development of asphalt binders would contribute to waste reduction, providing environmental, economic, and social benefits. In this study, samples of lignin-modified asphalt binder samples with different content of lignin (3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, and 15%) and unmodified asphalt (control) were tested using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), and thermogravimetry. The mechanism and effectiveness of lignin in improving the thermal stability of asphalt at high temperatures were analyzed. The FTIR analysis shows that no new characteristic absorption peak is seen in… More
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  • Urethane Modified Hydrophobic Compact Wood Pulp Paper for Oil Spill Cleanup: A Preliminary Study
  • Abstract Oil spills and oil/water wastewater are among the great concerns regarding oil pollution. Existing technologies face many limitations and in some cases are responsible for causing secondary pollution, therefore there is as seek for environmental friendly solutions. Biomass, from which celluloses are highlighted, are being employed for oil/water separation or oil absorbents membranes. Usually, these membranes are obtained by freeze drying of CNF (cellulose nano- fibrils) suspensions followed by chemical modification for hydrophobization, which involves expensive process as chemical vapor deposition and expensive reactants as sylanes, turning these processes hardly scalable. Here, we produced a natural porous structure paper from… More
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  • Preparation of Cellulose Nanofibrils by Multi-Site Regioselective Oxidation
  • Abstract Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) are promising sustainable materials that can be applied to nanocomposites, as well as medical and life-sciences devices. However, methods for the preparation of these important materials are energy intensive because heating and mechanical disintegration are required to produce cellulose fibers below 100 nm in size. In this study, CNFs were prepared through the multi-site regioselective oxidation of cellulose with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) and periodate at room temperature (20–25°C), without any mechanical-disintegration treatment. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the CNFs had the average widths of 14.1, 55.4, and 81.9 nm for three different treatments. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed… More
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  • Degradation of Spent Radioactive Ion Exchange Resins and Its Mechanisms by Fenton Process
  • Abstract Spent IERs are released during the operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The safe and efficient treatment of spent IERs is an emergent problem in nuclear industry. IRN77 is a typical ion exchange resin widely used in many nuclear power plants. Fenton process can degrade organic resins and reduce the radioactive residues volume and the disposal cost significantly. In this work, the IRN77 resin was selected as a model ion exchange resin and its treatment via Fenton process was investigated. The influencing factors for resin degradation, including catalyst dosage, reaction time, initial pH, temperature and oxidant dosage were investigated and… More
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  • Synthesis of Bio-Plasticizer from Soybean Oil and Its Application in Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Films
  • Abstract Herein, epoxidized soybean oil methyl ester (ESOM) plasticizer was synthesized for the preparation of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films by the alcoholysis and epoxidation. The chemical structure of ESOM was investigated by infrared spectrum and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. The effect of content of ESOM and petroleum based plasticizer di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) on the performance of plasticized PVC films was studied. The result showed that substituting DEHP with ESOM can improve the thermal stability of plasticized PVC films. When the weight ratio of ESOM and PVC is fixed at 1:2, plasticized PVC film presents higher elongation at break (350.8% vs.… More
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  • Recent Trends in Preparation and Applications of Biodegradable Polymer Composites
  • Abstract This review efficiently covers the research progress in the area of polymer bio composites in perspective of the modern-day renewable materials. In the last decade, attraction towards the bio-composite based systems has been the topic of interest due to their potential as a substitute of conventional materials produced in important manufacturing industries. Recently, preparation of biocompatible and biodegradable polymer composites is an important achievement as an alternative of petrochemical based renewable products. Successful production of eco-friendly bio-composite materials have been achieved with natural fibers viz jute, bamboo, hair, flex, wool, silk and many others instead of synthesized fibers like carbon,… More
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  • Utilization of Pineapple Crown Fiber and Recycled Polypropylene for Production of Sustainable Composites
  • Abstract Nowadays, the production of consumer goods is based on the use of non-renewable raw materials, which in recent years has been performing as a problem for the environment. Considering the large number of available biofibers in nature, their use in the development of polymeric composites has inevitably emerged, it is also necessary to take into account the countless discarded plastics that still have the potential to be reused. In this work, fibers were extracted from pineapple crown residues and utilized to compose sustainable composites using recycled polypropylene from cups discarded in the trash as a matrix. However, it is known… More
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  • Improving the Antibacterial Property of Chitosan Hydrogel Wound Dressing with Licorice Polysaccharide
  • Abstract A series of hydrogels with different ratios of chitosan and licorice polysaccharide (LP) were prepared by crosslinking to different concentrations of genipin (gp). They were characterized by FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), SEM (Scanning electron microscope), swelling ratio, rheological measurements, degradation with time, cytotoxicity, and antibacterial efficacy. Results show that the hydrogels have porous structures. With an increase in LP content, the swelling rate grows in the early stage of immersion in buffer and drops later. The swelling ratio ranged from 986% to 1677%, and stiffness varied from 777 Pa to 1792 Pa. The addition of LP reduced the mechanical… More
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  • Mechanical Properties of Lime-Fly Ash-Sulphate Aluminum Cement Stabilized Loess
  • Abstract Lime-fly ash stabilized loess has a poor early strength, which results in a later traffic opening time when it is used as road-base materials. Consideration of the significant early strength characteristics of sulphate aluminum cement (SAC), it is always added into the lime-fly ash mixtures to improve the early strength of stabilized loess. However, there is a scarcity of research on the mechanical behavior of lime-fly ash-SAC stabilized loess and there is a lack of quantitative evaluation of loess stabilized with binder materials. This research explored the effects of the amount of binder materials, curing time and porosity on the… More
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