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Polyurethanes are among of the most widely used polymers in the world. Their thermal and acoustic insulation properties, as well as their mechanical strength, make them materials with numerous applications. We propose a route for the synthesis of original polyurethanes built on the basis of totally bio-based products corresponding to a polyphenol, extractible from wood and glycerol. Preliminary tests are presented based on fatty amines. The method is currently applied to different diamines.
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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Feasibility Study of the Synthesis of Isocyanate-Free Polyurethanes from Catechin

    Wissem Sahmim1, Febrina Dellarose Boer1, Hubert Chapuis1, Firmin Obounou-Akong1, Antonio Pizzi2, Philippe Gérardin1, Christine Gérardin-Charbonnier1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.5, pp. 1175-1184, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.016365
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Foam Materials and Composites)
    Abstract With the current trend of increasing efforts to develop non-isocyanate-based polyurethanes (NIPUs), this study aimed to check the feasibility of the development of a method using cyclic carbonate modified catechin and amine to synthesis non-isocyanate urethane with the objective to further extend these results to polyurethane synthesis. The methods used in this study consist of four steps: glycidilation of catechin, hydrolysis of epoxide, cyclic carbonate synthesis, and carbamate synthesis through condensation of butylamine. The resulting products were analyzed using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy and NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy. The results showed that carbamate could be successfully obtained through… More >

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    Feasibility Study of the Synthesis of Isocyanate-Free Polyurethanes from Catechin

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of Loading Frequency on the High Cycle Fatigue Strength of Flax Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites

    Md Zahirul Islam, Chad A. Ulven*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.5, pp. 1185-1200, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018018
    Abstract Among natural fibers, flax fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites show excellent dynamic/fatigue properties due to its excellent damping properties. Knowledge about fatigue limit and effect of loading frequency on fatigue limit is very crucial to know before being used a member as a structural component. Fatigue limit of fiber reinforced composite is measured through high cycle fatigue strength (HCFS). The effect of loading frequency on the HCFS of flax fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites was investigated using stabilized specimen surface temperature based thermographic and dissipated energy per cycle-based approaches. Specimens of unidirectional flax fiber reinforced thermoset composites were tested under… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Bio-Based Trivalent Phytate: A Novel Strategy for Enhancing Fire Performance of Rigid Polyurethane Foam Composites

    Bing Zhang1, Sujie Yang1, Mengru Liu1, Panyue Wen2, Xiuyu Liu1, Gang Tang1,*, Xiangrong Xu3,4,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.5, pp. 1201-1220, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018047
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-based Halogen-free Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials)
    Abstract Biomass phytic acid has potential flame retardant value as the main form of phosphorus in plant seeds. In this study, phytate-based flame retardants aluminum phytate (PA-Al) and iron phytate (PA-Fe) were synthesized and characterized. Subsequently, they were introduced into rigid polyurethane foam (RPUF) as flame retardants by one-step water-blown method. The results indicated that RPUF/PA-Fe30 exhibited the highest char residue of 22.1 wt%, significantly higher than 12.4 wt% of RPUF. Cone calorimetry analysis showed that the total heat release (THR) of RPUF/PA-Al30 decreased by 17.0% and total smoke release (TSR) decreased by 22.0% compared with pure RPUF, which were the lowest, demonstrating… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Bio-Based Trivalent Phytate: A Novel Strategy for Enhancing Fire Performance of Rigid Polyurethane Foam Composites

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Concurrent Material Selection of Natural Fibre Filament for Fused Deposition Modeling Using Integration of Analytic Hierarchy Process/Analytic Network Process

    M. T. Mastura1,*, R. Nadlene2, R. Jumaidin1, S. I. Abdul Kudus1, M. R. Mansor2, H. M. S. Firdaus1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.5, pp. 1221-1238, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018082
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Natural Fibre Composites: Design, Materials Selection and Fabrication)
    Abstract The employment of natural fibres in fused deposition modeling has raised much attention from researchers in finding a suitable formulation for the natural fibre composite filaments. Moreover, selection of suitable natural fibres for fused deposition modeling should be performed before the development of the composites. It could not be performed without identifying selection criteria that comprehend both materials and fused deposition modeling process requirements. Therefore, in this study, integration of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)/Analytic Network Process (ANP) has been introduced in selecting the natural fibres based in different clusters of selection concurrently. The selection process has been performed based… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Abrasion Resistant TPU/SH-SiO2 Superhydrophobic Coating for Anti-Icing and Anti-Corrosion Applications

    Jiakun Shi1, Bizhu Zhang1, Xin Zhou1, Runxian Liu1, Jun Hu1,2,*, Huaan Zheng1, Zhong Chen3,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.5, pp. 1239-1255, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018045
    Abstract As a passive anti-icing strategy, properly designed superhydrophobic coatings can demonstrate outstanding performances. However, common preparation strategies for superhydrophobic coatings often lead to environmental pollution, high energy-consumption, high-cost and other undesirable issues. Besides, the durability of superhydrophobic coating also plagues its commercial application. In this paper, we introduced a facile and environment-friendly technique for fabricating abrasion-resistant superhydrophobic surfaces using thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and modified SiO2 particles (SH-SiO2). Both materials are non-toxicity, low-cost, and commercial available. Our methodology has the following advantages: use of minimal amounts of formulation, take the most streamlined technical route, and no waste material. These advantages make… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    An Abrasion Resistant TPU/SH-SiO<sub>2</sub> Superhydrophobic Coating for Anti-Icing and Anti-Corrosion Applications

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Bio-Adhesives Combined with Lotus Leaf Fiber to Prepare Bio-Composites for Substituting the Plastic Packaging Materials

    Ke Shi1,2, Luyang Wang1,2, Ruige Qi1,2, Chunxia He1,2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.5, pp. 1257-1268, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017891
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Food Packaging Materials Based on Renewable Resources)
    Abstract This work was aim to prepare a packing material from natural resources to reduce the environment pollution caused by plastics. Four bio-adhesives (guar gum, sodium alginate, agar and chitosan) were combined with lotus leaf fibers to prepare degradable composites, respectively. The mechanical properties, moisture absorption profiles and the thermal conductivity of the composites were studied and the cross section morphology and the thermal properties of the composites were analyzed. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results showed that the polar groups such as –OH and –COO in bio-adhesives can form hydrogen bond with –OH in lotus leaf fibers to connect the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Optimum Calcination Condition of Waste Stabilized Adobe for Alkali Activated High Volume Adobe-Slag Binder Cured at Room Temperature

    Brya Aldawoodi1,*, Salaheddin Sabri1, Abdulmounem Alchekh Wis2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.5, pp. 1269-1285, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017445
    Abstract This study aims to determine the most convenient calcination temperature and calcination duration of waste-stabilized Adobe (AB) to produce a new alkali-activated binder. Waste-stabilized Adobe mainly consists of soil, CaCO3 as a stabilizer, and straw (for strengthening). The availability of raw materials for making Adobe presents the waste-stabilized Adobe as a potential product for a new alkali-activated binder. Waste-stabilized Adobe collected from an abandoned damaged building in the village of Inonu in Northern Cyprus, ground and calcined at the following temperatures: 450, 550, 650, 750, 850, and 950°C. The calcination at each temperature was held for different durations 1, 3,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Experimental Study on Improvement Effects of Completely Weathered Phyllite Using Red Clay and Cement for High-Speed Railway Embankments

    Xiushao Zhao1, Jianglong Rao1, Qijing Yang1,2,*, Yu Rong3, Zhitao Fu1, Zhiyao Wang1, Zixi Chen1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.5, pp. 1287-1305, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017473
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract Completely weathered phyllite (CWP) has the characteristics of difficult compaction, low shear strength after compaction and large settlement after construction. The traditional improvement method using a single agent of red clay or cement for CWP satisfies the subgrade requirements for ordinary railway, but cannot meet the requirements of immediate strength and long-term post-construction settlement of high-speed railway at the same time. A series of experimental investigations were undertaken for the blended CWP soils, with three additives used. The first additive was red clay, the second was cement and the third was a combination of both red clay and cement at… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Experimental Study on Improvement Effects of Completely Weathered Phyllite Using Red Clay and Cement for High-Speed Railway Embankments

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Experimental Investigation on the Mechanical Properties of Natural Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    Ismail Shah1,2, Jing Li1,2,*, Shengyuan Yang1, Yubo Zhang1, Aftab Anwar1,2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.5, pp. 1307-1320, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017513
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recycled Concrete Towards a Sustainable Society)
    Abstract Recently, addition of various natural fibers to high strength concrete has aroused great interest in the field of building materials. This is because natural fibers are much cheaper and locally available, as compare to synthetic fibers. Keeping in view, this current research conducted mainly focuses on the static properties of hybridized (sisal/coir), sisal and coir fiber-reinforced concrete. Two types of natural fibers sisal and coir were used in the experiment with different lengths of 10, 20 and 30 mm and various natural fiber concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% by mass of cement, to investigate the static properties of sisal… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Experimental Investigation on the Mechanical Properties of Natural Fiber Reinforced Concrete

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Study on Air-Purifying Performance of Semi-Flexible Asphalt Samples Coated with Titanium Dioxide Using Different Methods

    Shoujing Yan1, Yangyang Wang2,*, Fengxia Chi1, Xue Luo2, Tianjie Zhang3, Chenchen Xi1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.5, pp. 1321-1335, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017545
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Green Coating and Film for Degeneration Protection)
    Abstract Titanium dioxide (TiO2) was recently employed to apply onto road surfaces to degrade the harmful compounds from vehicle emissions. However, it remains a challenging task to find a highly compatible pavement type for TiO2 application to achieve durable and efficient air-purifying performance. This study proposed to coat TiO2 particles onto semi-flexible pavement surface and tried to investigate an optimum coating method. Three coating methods, including direct mixing TiO2 (MT) with asphalt mixture, spraying dry TiO2 (ST) coating and water-solution-based TiO2 (WT) coating on semi-flexible pavement surface. To achieve this objective, semi-flexible samples were prepared to evaluate and compare the performances… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Study on Air-Purifying Performance of Semi-Flexible Asphalt Samples Coated with Titanium Dioxide Using Different Methods

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Facile Preparation of Fe–N–C Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts from Metal Organic Frameworks for Zn-Air Battery

    Chengcheng Wang1,2,*, Dawei Luo1, Bingxue Hou3, Mortaza Gholizadeh4, Zanxiong Tan1, Xiaojie Han1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.5, pp. 1337-1348, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018770
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Renewable Energy Storage Materials and Their Composite: Preparation, Characterization and Applications)
    Abstract It is critical to study efficient, stable oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts due to insufficient stability and expensive price of Pt/C catalysts for Zn-air batteries. Fe–N–C electrocatalysts was synthesized by a facile solvent-green method and the efficiency of Fe–N–C optimized was studied as potential ORR electrocatalysts under alkaline condition. Results indicated that it had excellent ORR activity with E1/2 of 0.93 V, which was competitive to that of Pt/C-JM under the same conditions. Moreover, the assembled Zn-air battery exhibited discharge potential and charge potential of 1.2 V, 2.32 V at 5 mA cm2 with high stability, respectively. Overall, all results illustrated… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Facile Preparation of Fe–N–C Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts from Metal Organic Frameworks for Zn-Air Battery

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Vanillin-Derived, DOPO-Contained Bisphenol as a Reactive Flame Retardant for High-Performance Epoxy Thermosets

    Li Wang1,2,#, Rongbai Tong3,#, Juanli Wang1,2,*, Jintao Wan1,2,*, Yuhu Li1,2, Pujun Jin1,2, Daodao Hu1,2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.5, pp. 1349-1364, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019372
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-based Halogen-free Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials)
    Abstract Quest for bio-based halogen-free green flame retardant has attracted many concerns in recent years. Herein a reactive functional flame retardant containing phosphorus VDP is synthesized from vanillin, 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphophene-10-oxide (DOPO) and phenol via a facile way. VDP is characterized with 1H NMR, 31P NMR, FTIR and Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry, and used as a new reactive flame retardant for bisphenol epoxy thermosets. Thermogravimetry analysis shows that when the VDP loading is only 0.5P% (based on phosphorus content), the residue increases from 14.2% to 21.1% at 750°C in N2 compare with neat DGEBA. Correspondingly, the limit oxygen index increased to 29.6%,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Investigation on the Visible Characteristics of Four Caesalpiniaceae Wood Species in Gabon

    Zhaoyang Yu1, Jinbo Hu1,2,*, Yuan Liu1,*, Shanshan Chang1, Ting Li2, Gonggang Liu1, Qiongtao Huang3, Jianying Yuan4
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.5, pp. 1365-1379, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018255
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Wood Composites from Renewable Materials)
    Abstract Color, whiteness and glossiness of four caesalpiniaceae wood species were characterized by quantitative measurements and image analysis, i.e., which were respectively Berlinia bracteosa Benth., Monopetalanthus heitzii Pellegr., Distemonanthus benthamianus and Erythrophleum ivorense A. Chev. The color of four wood species was evaluated to be consistent by the CIELab and CIE1931 color system. The boards of B. bracteosa, M. heitzii and E. ivorense was divided into dark color. The wood color of B. bracteosa had the highest red to green hue, while the wood appearance of D. benthamianus had the brightest and yellowest color within the four wood species. The whiteness… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    An Investigation on the Visible Characteristics of Four Caesalpiniaceae Wood Species in Gabon

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    STRASS Dehazing: Spatio-Temporal Retinex-Inspired Dehazing by an Averaging of Stochastic Samples

    Zhe Yu1, Bangyong Sun1,3,*, Di Liu2, Vincent Whannou de Dravo1, Margarita Khokhlova4, Siyuan Wu3
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.5, pp. 1381-1395, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018262
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Green, Recycled and Intelligent Technologies in Printing and Packaging)
    Abstract In this paper, we propose a neoteric and high-efficiency single image dehazing algorithm via contrast enhancement which is called STRASS (Spatio-Temporal Retinex-Inspired by an Averaging of Stochastic Samples) dehazing, it is realized by constructing an efficient high-pass filter to process haze images and taking the influence of human vision system into account in image dehazing principles. The novel high-pass filter works by getting each pixel using RSR and computes the average of the samples. Then the low-pass filter resulting from the minimum envelope in STRESS framework has been replaced by the average of the samples. The final dehazed image is… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of Recycled Mixed Powder on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Concrete

    Chao Liu1,2,*, Huawei Liu2,*, Jian Wu1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.5, pp. 1397-1414, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018386
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recycled Concrete Towards a Sustainable Society)
    Abstract In this paper, recycled bricks and recycled concrete were applied to prepare eco-friendly recycled mixed powder (RMP) cementitious material, as a supplementary to replace conventional cement for improve the recycling of construction and demolition waste. Based on the effect of cementitious materials on the hydration of silicate cement, the effects of RMP on the workability, mechanical properties and microstructure of recycled mixed powder concrete (RMPC) with the different replacement ratios and the 8:4 and 6:4 mixing ratio of recycled brick powder (RBP) and recycled concrete powder (RCP) were investigated. The results showed that the fluidity of the mix decreased with… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Modular Design Using Sustainable Luminescent Materials in Energy-Saving Reflective Cat’s Eyes for Public Road Safety Planning

    Lung-Yin Lin1, Yu-Shing Chang2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.5, pp. 1415-1437, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018408
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: New Trends in Sustainable Materials for Energy Conversion, CO2 Capture and Pollution Control)
    Abstract Recently, there has been a global movement toward environmental protection and energy conservation through the design and development of new products in accordance with sustainable utilisation. In this study, rare earth luminescent materials were used owing to their active light emission and reusability. Additionally, solar light-emitting diode lights and car-light reflection were utilised to increase the recognition and reliability of reflective cat eyes. Along with carbon reduction, this can save energy and enhance road safety. This study considered the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving and a literature review to analyse the issues in existing products. Then, expert interviews were conducted… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Fluidity Influencing Factor Analysis and Ratio Optimization of New Filling Slurry Based on the Response Surface Method

    Guanfeng Chang, Xinzhu Hua*, Xiao Liu, Chen Li, Enqian Wang, Bingjun Sun
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.5, pp. 1439-1458, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018607
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: New Trends in Sustainable Materials for Energy Conversion, CO2 Capture and Pollution Control)
    Abstract The filling mining method is important in realizing the green mining of mineral resources. Aiming at the problems of land resource occupation, environmental pollution, and rational utilization of coal-based solid wastes such as coal gangue, fly ash, and desulfurization gypsum, a new paste filling material was developed with coal gangue, fly ash, and desulfurization gypsum as raw materials. The microstructure of the raw materials was analyzed by XRD and SEM. Combined with the Box-Behnken experimental design, the effect of each component on the fluidity of the filling slurry was analyzed through the response surface analysis. The significance of each component… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Fluidity Influencing Factor Analysis and Ratio Optimization of New Filling Slurry Based on the Response Surface Method

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