Home / Journals / JRM / Vol.10, No.6, 2022
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Polyphenols have a variety of biological effects such as antioxidation, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor capabilities. Polyphenols have now been widely used in preventing oral infections, hypophysis sugar, lowering blood pressure, neuroprotection and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Due to the structural diversity of polyphenols and the complex interior structure of the plant’s cell wall, different extraction technologies should be adaptively applied for different plants. This review summarizes the recent extraction techniques of solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasonic extraction, enzymatic extraction, resin adsorption extraction, and electric field methods for isolating polyphenols from different plants.
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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Cellulose Nanocrystal from Washingtonia Fibre and Its Characterization

    Mohammad Jawaid1, Lau Kia Kian1, Hassan Fouad2, Ramzi Khiari3,4,5,*, Othman Y. Alothman6, Mohamed Hashem7
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.6, pp. 1459-1470, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018415
    Abstract Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) is a biomaterial derived from plant lignocellulosic components, widely applied in various industrial fields. Concurrently, with the growth of awareness in developing green nanomaterial, the explored Washingtonia fibre could be alternative biomass for obtaining CNC products. In the present work, different acid concentrations of 5%, 15%, and 25% hydrochloric solutions were employed to produce CNCs from Washingtonia fibre. With the chemical treatments, the yield of the CNC product was successfully retained at 21.6%−25.1%. Individually separated and needle-shaped CNC particles could be observed under the microscopic viewing with the increased acid concentrations. From elemental analysis, a relatively pure… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Cellulose Nanocrystal from <i>Washingtonia</i> Fibre and Its Characterization

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Recent Technologies for the Extraction and Separation of Polyphenols in Different Plants: A Review

    Yingying Hu1,#, Bowen Yan1,#, Zhefan Stephen Chen2, Lei Wang3, Wei Tang1 and Caoxing Huang1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.6, pp. 1471-1490, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018811
    Abstract Polyphenol is an important secondary metabolite with unique physiological functions and biological activity. The polyphenols in different plants and biomass have different chemical structures, which needs various extraction methods to obtain them. Recently, plant polyphenols and their application research in food and medicine have become a research hotspot, which is mainly focused on preparation, purification, structural identification, and biological activity assays. Among these researches, extraction and separation are the key sections to investigate the structure and activity of polyphenol. Hence, this review summarized the recent extraction and separation techniques of polyphenol, including solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasonic extraction, enzymatic… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Recent Technologies for the Extraction and Separation of Polyphenols in Different Plants: A Review

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    One Step Regioselective Acylation of Polyphenolic Wood Extractive and Its Application for Wood Treatment

    Wissem Sahmim, Georges Eid, Febrina Dellarose Boer, Hubert Chapuis, Philippe Gérardin, Christine Gérardin-Charbonnier*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.6, pp. 1491-1503, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.016364
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract This study evaluated the methods of grafting commercial catechin with fatty acids, namely capric acid (C10), lauric acid (C12), and myristic acid (C14) through esterification. Specimens of beech wood (Fagus sylvatica L.) were impregnated with catechin and modified catechin-fatty acids, separately, at a 5% concentration diluted in ethanol using vacuum pressure treatment and subjected to leaching. The weight percentage gain before leaching (WPG), after leaching (WPGAL), and weight loss due to leaching (PL) were investigated. Both leached and unleached samples were tested against white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor) in Petri-dishes for twelve weeks. Results show that samples treated with modified catechin-fatty… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    One Step Regioselective Acylation of Polyphenolic Wood Extractive and Its Application for Wood Treatment

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Properties of Different Chemically Treated Woven Hemp Fabric Reinforced Bio-Composites

    Arunjunai Raj Mahendran*, Günter Wuzella, Stefan Pichler, Herfried Lammer
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.6, pp. 1505-1516, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017835
    Abstract The objective of this work is to carry out the chemical treatment for the hemp fabrics in a closed vacuum system and to prepare bio-based composites using treated hemp fabrics. The change in surface tension of the treated fabrics was measured using contact angle measurement and the wetting behavior using a tensiometer. Bio-based composites were fabricated using bio-based epoxy resin and different chemically treated fabrics. The flexural strength and dynamic water absorption behavior of the composites were characterized. The acetylated fabrics showed very good wetting behavior, and the contact angle values were marginally low compared to other treatment techniques. The… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Properties of Different Chemically Treated Woven Hemp Fabric Reinforced Bio-Composites

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Experimental Investigation of the Creep Behaviour of Glulam Compression-Bending Members

    Yifei Yin, Lirong Qu, Weidong Lu*, Chengshuai Li
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.6, pp. 1517-1535, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018149
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Research and Innovations in Engineered Timber and Mass Timber Products for Sustainable Built-Environment)
    Abstract Creep test results of glulam members under compression and bending were studied in this paper. The creep tests were conducted to investigate the influence of the stress level and relative eccentricity on the creep deformation of glulam members. The test results showed that the creep deformation trends of glulam members under long-term compression and bending loading were similar; the creep deformation increased with increases in both the stress level and relative eccentricity. However, the relative creep deformation decreased with the increase in both the stress level and relative eccentricity under long-term loading, and a five-parameter creep model was proposed to… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Experimental Investigation of the Creep Behaviour of Glulam Compression-Bending Members

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Study on the Fire Behavior of Sandwich Wall Panels with GFRP Skins and a Wood-Web Core

    Guangjun Sun, Chuting Wang, Lu Wang*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.6, pp. 1537-1553, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018598
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Wood Composites from Renewable Materials)
    Abstract To investigate the temperature field and residual bearing capacity of the sandwich wall panels with GFRP skins and a wood-web core under a fire, three sandwich walls were tested. One of them was used for static load test and the other two for the one-side fire tests. Besides, temperature probe points were set on the sandwich walls to obtain the temperature distribution. Meanwhile, the model of the sandwich wall was established in the finite element software by the method of core material stiffness equivalent. The temperature distribution and performance reduction of materials were also considered. The residual bearing capacity of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The Estimation of the Higher Heating Value of Biochar by Data-Driven Modeling

    Jiefeng Chen1, Lisha Ding1, Pengyu Wang1, Weijin Zhang2, Jie Li3, Badr A. Mohamed4, Jie Chen1, Songqi Leng1, Tonggui Liu1, Lijian Leng2,*, Wenguang Zhou1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.6, pp. 1555-1574, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018625
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Biochar Based Materials for a Green Future)
    Abstract Biomass is a carbon-neutral renewable energy resource. Biochar produced from biomass pyrolysis exhibits preferable characteristics and potential for fossil fuel substitution. For time- and cost-saving, it is vital to establish predictive models to predict biochar properties. However, limited studies focused on the accurate prediction of HHV of biochar by using proximate and ultimate analysis results of various biochar. Therefore, the multi-linear regression (MLR) and the machine learning (ML) models were developed to predict the measured HHV of biochar from the experiment data of this study. In detail, 52 types of biochars were produced by pyrolysis from rice straw, pig manure,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Comparative Study on Various Strength Parameters of Structural Elements Made from Cross-Laminated Timber

    Mohammad Anwar-Us-Saadat1, Janeshka Goonewardena2, Bidur Kafle2, Mahmud Ashraf2,*, Mahbube Subhani2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.6, pp. 1575-1606, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018919
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Research and Innovations in Engineered Timber and Mass Timber Products for Sustainable Built-Environment)
    Abstract Cross laminated timber (CLT) is an innovative and environment friendly engineered timber product with superior structural performance. CLT offers strong resistance against both in-plane and out-of-plane loading. Hence, it is widely used as floors, roofs or wall elements. Considerable experimental research on CLT under various loading conditions has been done in the recent past. This article presents a comprehensive review of various design methods to determine basic mechanical properties such as tension, compression and rolling shear strength of CLT with primary focus on Norway spruce. All relevant experimental data available from existing literature were collated and consequently been used to… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Comparison of Essential Oil Composition, Phenolic Compound and Biological Activities of Salvia microphylla and Teucrium polium (Lamiaceae)

    Ayda Khadhri1, Chedia Aouadhi2, Eric Masson3, Antonio Pizzi4,5,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.6, pp. 1607-1621, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018950
    Abstract Salvia microphylla and Teucrium polium are medicinal and aromatic plants with ethnobotanical uses. The present study was conducted to investigate the chemical composition of Salvia microphylla and Teucrium polium essential oils, the secondary metabolites, and the biological activities of their infusion and methanolic (MeOH) extracts. Essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation from shoots Salvia microphylla and Teucrium polium. Phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were determined. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) results showed the presence of significant qualitative and quantitative variations for the composition of the both essential oils (EO). Salvia microphylla EO were most complex and present 70 compounds with… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Preparation and Characterization of Waterborne Polyurethane with Unique Nanoparticles by Controlling Water

    Xing Zhou*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.6, pp. 1623-1639, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018935
    Abstract A facile method, focusing on emulsification, chain extension and dispersion process in preparing waterborne polyurethane, was developed to prepare emulsion with rod-like nanoparticles. The facile method involves a water addition procedure by in situ generated water to react with polyurethane prepolymer instead of the external water addition process. As a comparison, waterborne polyurethane was synthesized through the external water addition process. According to the characterization methods including FTIR, 1H-NMR, TEM and water swelling experiments, it is suggested there are two kinds of hydrogen bonds interactions in hard/soft domain of the novel polyurethane, and the phase separation of hard/soft domains increases… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Preparation and Characterization of Waterborne Polyurethane with Unique Nanoparticles by Controlling Water

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of Alternation of Aging and Seawater Erosion on Properties of Rubber Material Used in Lead Rubber Bearing

    Yanmin Li1,2, Guifeng Zhao2,3, Yuhong Ma1,2,*, Rong Liu1,2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.6, pp. 1641-1658, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018277
    Abstract An artificially accelerated alternation of aging and seawater erosion test of rubber materials used in lead rubber bearing (LRB) was performed, mainly to study the time-varying laws of rubber materials mechanical properties. Time-varying laws of the Mooney–Rivlin and Neo-Hookean constitutive parameters of rubber materials under the alternation of aging and seawater erosion were also analyzed. Results indicate that the rubber material mechanical properties were significantly affected by alternation of aging and seawater erosion. Hardness and elongation stress increased exponentially with test time. And 120 days after the test, the hardness increased by 14%, the maximum percentage increase in stress of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Laboratory Study on CR/SBS Modified Asphalt: Preparation and Performance Characterization

    Liang Song1,2,3, Guoqiang Zhang2, Hongfei Xie2, Jie Gao4,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.6, pp. 1659-1674, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018335
    Abstract Crumble rubber (CR) can be used to prepare CR and styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) composite modified asphalt with a good high-and low-temperature performance, meanwhile the addition of CR could work as the substitute for SBS and help reduce the content of SBS. This study contains three main parts: effect of preparation and effect of material composition as well as rheological performance characterization. Factors during the preparation, including shearing temperature, shearing time, mixing time and swelling time, were selected, while base binder, CR content, CR particle size and SBS content in material composition were considered. The effects of these factors were assessed in… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Experimental Performance Measures of Recycled Insulation Concrete Blocks from Construction and Demolition Waste

    Doudou Liu1,*, Liang Qiao2,3, Guozhong Li4
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.6, pp. 1675-1691, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018397
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recycled Concrete Towards a Sustainable Society)
    Abstract Construction and demolition (C&D) waste has seriously affected the ecological environment. The utilization of C&D waste resources can greatly alleviate this problem, and it is an important way to help achieve the goal of zero carbon in 2050. In this study, insulation concrete blocks were developed with recycled aggregates, cement, fly ash as main raw materials, expanded polystyrene (EPS) insulation boards as block insulation filling material, and self-developed construction waste composite activator, interface enhancer, surface modifier and other additives. Through experimental research and performance test analysis, the best mix ratio of the product and the mechanism of each additive were… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Study on Triaxial Mechanical Properties and Micro Mechanism of Fly Ash Reinforced Cement Calcareous Sand

    Ben Li1, Na Li1,*, Chulei Fang1, Jun Hu2,*, Rong Yu3, Longxin Shu1, Kai Yao3, Fang Zhang1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.6, pp. 1693-1710, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018475
    Abstract In order to study the mechanical properties and micro-mechanism of industrial waste fly ash-reinforced cement calcareous sand (FCS), the triaxial unconsolidated undrained (UU) test and scanning electron microscope tests (SEM) were carried out on it. The results of UU test show that the peak stress and energy dissipation of the FCS sample first increase and then decrease with the increase in fly ash content. Fly ash enhances the cement calcareous sand by increasing both the cohesion and internal friction angle, and adding 10% content of fly ash gives the largest values. The SEM test results shows that the hydration products… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Synthesis of Hierarchical TS-1 and Its Recycling Catalytic Property for Oxidative Desulfurization

    Jinglong Huai1, Xiaoxue Liu2,*, Yinhai Zhang1, Yang Yang1, Yan Gou1, Li Qin1, Jinling Shan1, Yancheng Zheng1, Hao Li1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.6, pp. 1711-1726, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018474
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: New Insights on Nanomaterials for Energy, Environmental and Agricultural Applications)
    Abstract Because of its unique pore structure, good hydrothermal stability and high specific surface area, hierarchical TS-1 zeolite (HTS-1) has become an important catalyst for the deep oxidative desulfurization of fuel oils. In this work, HTS-1 has been successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal crystallization method using the C-SiO2 composite as both silicon source and mesoporous template, tetrapropylammonium hydroxide as microporous template, and tetrabutylorthotitanate as titanium source. The C-SiO2 composite is obtained by mild carbonization of the SiO2/T-40 (Tween 40) xerogel, which is prepared by the two step sol-gel method. The reaction conditions for the oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) and… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Synthesis of Hierarchical TS-1 and Its Recycling Catalytic Property for Oxidative Desulfurization

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Mechanism behind Time Dependent Elasticity of Crumb Rubber-Nano-Asphalt Hybrids Using Discrete Relaxation Spectrum

    Lili Han1,2, Mulian Zheng2,*, Hongbing Guo1, Tao Wang3, Jiajian Zhu4, Pouria Hajikarimi5
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.6, pp. 1727-1752, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018467
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Current Advances in Green Nanomaterials Applications)
    Abstract Crumb rubber powder is a successfully used renewable material obtained from waste tire rubber, which has been incorporated into paving asphalt since the 1930s due to its good resistance to deformation and fatigue as well as its eco-friendly performance. In this study, carbon nanotubes and nano silica were incorporated into the terminal blend crumb rubber modified asphalt technology to remedy the issues of excessive desulfurization and degradation of ground tyre rubber with this technology. The mechanism behind the high temperature delayed elastic properties of the crumb rubber-nano-asphalt hybrids was experimentally investigated based on discrete relaxation spectrum. Development of the discrete… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The Interaction Effects of the Parameters on Optimization Design in Paper Production Waste Usage on Alkali-Activated Slag with Taguchi Method

    Teng Yi1,*, Shuenn-Ren Liou1, Wen-Yih Kuo1,2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.6, pp. 1753-1772, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018587
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recycled Concrete Towards a Sustainable Society)
    Abstract The paper investigates the second-order interactions of parameters in an alkali-activated mixture of paper production waste (PPW) and blast furnace slag (BFS) in Taguchi method. The PPW including lime mud (LM) and paper sludge (PS). This paper provides the experimental models to assess the compressive and flexural strength of them at 7-day and 28-day. The results have shown that the second-order interactions between PPW and alkali-activated activator exists in each experimental model, and the significant interactions affect the selection of optimal compositions. Compared with the interactions between the PPW themselves, the interactions between PPW and alkali-activated parameters are the main… More >

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