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The presented work design a 3-layer sandwich structure material only via mechanical stirring without foaming agent addition. The prepared sandwich structured material presented good thermal insulation and fire resistance. Most importantly, all the stuffs were used to prepare this sandwich structure material are renewable.
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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Desorption Behavior and Thermogravimetric Analysis of Bio-Hardeners

    Benoit Ndiwe1,2,3, Antonio Pizzi4,*, Hubert Chapuis5, Noel Konai6, Lionel Karga7, Pierre Girods4, Raidandi Danwe6,8
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.8, pp. 2015-2027, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019891
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable and Biosourced Adhesives-2021)
    Abstract In this work, the thermal degradation and drying of bio-hardeners are investigated. Four bio-hardeners based on exudates of Senegalia senegal, Vachellia nilotica, Vachellia seyal, and Acacia Siebteriana were analyzed by FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis, and a desorption study was also conducted. The analysis by infrared spectroscopy indicates the existence of oligomers of different types all giving 5-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethylfuran and 2, 5-dihydroxymethylfuran which are then the real hardening molecules. The pyrolysis of these extracts reveals three main regions of mass loss, a first region is located between 25°C and 110°C reflecting the loss of water from the adhesive and the formation of… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Desorption Behavior and Thermogravimetric Analysis of Bio-Hardeners

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Preparation and Characterization of Sandwich Structured Materials with Interesting Insulation and Fire Resistance

    Haizhu Wu1,#, Jinxing Li1,#, Shouhu Bao1, Fuxian Yang1, Jun Zhang1, Hisham Essawy2,*, Guanben Du1, Xiaojian Zhou1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.8, pp. 2029-2039, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019834
    Abstract A cellular material in the form of 3-layered sandwich structure material was prepared via sole use of mechanical stirring without any use of a foaming agent, while Tween-80 was employed as a foam stabilizer via a developed in-situ mold casting. The resulting structure displayed a good appearance with no visual defects. The 3-layered composition of the sandwish structure, “nonporous resin layer-porous foam layer-nonporous resin layer”, was examined in terms of the microstructure, density & density distribution, pulverization ratio, mechanical strength, insulation and flame retardant performance. It was indicated from the results that the bonding between the resin layer and foam… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Preparation and Characterization of Sandwich Structured Materials with Interesting Insulation and Fire Resistance

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Study on Microwave Pretreatment Technology to Improve the Effect of Shellac Impregnation of Fast-Growing Chinese Fir

    Xiya Yu1, Nianfeng Wei2, Qisong Liu2, Zhiyong Wu2, Mizi Fan3, Weigang Zhao1,*, Qinzhi Zeng1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.8, pp. 2041-2053, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018027
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable and Biosourced Adhesives-2021)
    Abstract To improve the mechanical properties of fast-growing Chinese fir (Cunnighamia lanceolate), expand its range of application, increase its value, and avoid the environmental pollution caused by impregnation with synthetic resin, Chinese fir was impregnated with a shellac solution. Since the shellac solution was difficult to penetrate into fast-growing Chinese fir, so microwave pretreatment was used to irradiate the wood to improve the permeability. This study investigated the effects of four factors, including the content of moisture in the wood before it was microwaved, the chamber pressure of microwave, the time of microwaving and the vacuum impregnation on the mechanical properties… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Study on Microwave Pretreatment Technology to Improve the Effect of Shellac Impregnation of Fast-Growing Chinese Fir

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effects of TiO2 Support and Cobalt Addition of Ni/TiO2 Catalyst in Selective Hydrogenation of Furfural to Furfuryl Alcohol

    Kittithad Wonglekha1,#, Weerachon Tolek1,#, Okorn Mekasuwandumrong2, Wasu Chaitree2, Piyasan Praserthdam1, Kiat Moon Lee3, Joongjai Panpranot1,3,4,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.8, pp. 2055-2072, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019680
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advances in Catalysis toward the Production of Green Energy and Chemicals)
    Abstract An effect of phase compositions (rutile, Rut and anatase, Ant) of TiO2 supports on the selective hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol was investigated. The 15%wt Ni/TiO2 catalysts were prepared by incipient impregnation method. The result showed that Ni supported on anatase-rutile mixed phase TiO2 (91% Rut and 9% Ant, A2) provided the highest furfuryl alcohol yield at 43.8% due to the relatively strong Ni-TiO2 interaction, its appropriate crystallite sizes, and high average pore sizes. Furthermore, the effect of cobalt as a promoter on Ni/ TiO2-A2 catalysts was studied. The result showed that the Ni-Co/TiO2-A2 catalysts exhibited poorer catalyst performances… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Effects of TiO<sub>2</sub> Support and Cobalt Addition of Ni/TiO<sub>2</sub> Catalyst in Selective Hydrogenation of Furfural to Furfuryl Alcohol

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    A Review on Strengthening of Timber Beams Using Fiber Reinforced Polymers

    Bingyu Jian1,2, Ke Cheng3, Haitao Li1,2,*, Mahmud Ashraf2,4, Xiaoyan Zheng1,2, Assima Dauletbek1,2, Mahdi Hosseini1,2, Rodolfo Lorenzo5, Ileana Corbi6, Ottavia Corbi6, Kun Zhou7
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.8, pp. 2073-2098, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.021983
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-Composite Materials and Structures-2021)
    Abstract Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) has been used in the construction industry because of its advantages such as high strength, light weight, corrosion resistance, low density and high elasticity. This paper presents a review of bonding techniques adopted to strengthen timber beams using FRP to achieve larger spans. Different methods of bonding between FRP and timber beams have been summarized with a focus on the influencing factors and their effects as well as relevant bond-slip models proposed for fundamental understanding. Experimental investigations to evaluate the flexural performance of timber beams strengthened by FRP bars, sheets and wraps have also been critically… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    A Review on Strengthening of Timber Beams Using Fiber Reinforced Polymers

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Novel Magnetic Carbon Based Catalyst Synthesized from Reed Straw and Electric Furnace Dust for Biodiesel Production

    Fuping Wang1, Lele Kang1, Rui Ji1, Tianji Liu1, Qing Yu1, Di Gao1, Xiaoman Wang1, Yitong Wang1,*, Jie Yang2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.8, pp. 2099-2115, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018806
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Biochar Based Materials for a Green Future)
    Abstract In the era of serious greenhouse gas emission and energy shortage, it is necessary to use solid waste to prepare new renewable materials. In this work, the potential application of reed straw and electric furnace dust was explored. Firstly, magnetic carbon carrier (EFD&C) was prepared by high temperature calcination, and then magnetic carbon catalyst (SM@EFD&C) was prepared by activation of sodium methoxide. The catalyst was used to prepare biodiesel by transesterification reaction to test its activity and stability. Reed biochar, EFD&C and SM@EFD&C were detected by Diffraction of X-rays (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Inductively coupled plasma (ICP), Scanning electron… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    A Novel Magnetic Carbon Based Catalyst Synthesized from Reed Straw and Electric Furnace Dust for Biodiesel Production

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Curing Kinetics of Tannin and Lignin Biobased Adhesives Determined by DSC and ABES

    Jaša Saražin1, Ida Poljanšek1, Antonio Pizzi2, Milan Šernek1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.8, pp. 2117-2131, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019602
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Characterization of the Curing of Bio-Based Adhesives)
    Abstract The curing process of two biobased adhesives: pine tanninhexamine (TH) and organosolv lignin non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU), suitable for interior nonstructural use, were compared with commercial urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesive. Changes in chemical structure before and after the curing process were observed with Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The process of adhesive curing was monitored with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the automated bonding evaluation system (ABES). Both DSC and ABES measurements confirmed UF as the fastest and NIPU as the slowest curing adhesive observed. Taking into account the ABES results, the optimal pressing parameters for the TH adhesive would be 4 min… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Dust Deposition’s Effect on Solar Photovoltaic Module Performance: An Experimental Study in India’s Tropical Region

    K. R. Chairma Lakshmi*, Geetha Ramadas
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.8, pp. 2133-2153, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019649
    Abstract A solar PV panel works with maximum efficiency only when it is operated around its optimum operating point or maximum power point. Unfortunately, the performance of the solar cell is affected by several factors like sun direction, solar irradiance, dust accumulation, module temperature, as well as the load on the system. Dust deposition is one of the most prominent factors that influence the performance of solar panels. Because the solar panel is exposed to the atmosphere, dust will accumulate on its surface, reducing the quantity of sunlight reaching the solar cell and diminishing output. In the proposed work, a detailed… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Evaluating Simultaneous Impact of Slag and Tire Rubber Powder on Mechanical Characteristics and Durability of Concrete

    Mostafa Amiri1, Farzad Hatami2,*, Emadaldin Mohammadi Golafshani3
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.8, pp. 2155-2177, 2022, DOI: 10.32604/jrm.2022.019726
    Abstract In this experimental study, the impact of Portland cement replacement by ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and micronized rubber powder (MRP) on the compressive, flexural, tensile strengths, and rapid chloride migration test (RCMT) of concrete were assessed. In this study, samples with different binder content and water to binder ratios, including the MRP with the substitution levels of 0%, 2.5% and 5%, and the GGBFS with the substitution ratios of 0%, 20% and 40% by weight of Portland cement were made. According to the results, in the samples containing slag and rubber powder in the early ages, on average,… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Evaluating Simultaneous Impact of Slag and Tire Rubber Powder on Mechanical Characteristics and Durability of Concrete

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Synthesis and Characterization of Hydrogels Based on Potato Starch/Poly(vinyl Alcohol)/N,N′-Methylenebisacrylamide

    Diego David Pinzón-Moreno*, Eder Clidio Vicuña-Galindo, José Vulfrano González-Fernández, José Luis Soto-Gonzales, María Verónica Carranza-Oropeza*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.8, pp. 2179-2201, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019793
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Biomass-Derived Functional Hydrogels)
    Abstract Several hydrogels were synthesized by free-radical polymerization in an aqueous medium based on potato starch (PS), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and N,N′-Methylenebisacrylamide (MBAm), being possible to study these hydrogels as a function of the proportion of components incorporated. In this way, the products generated from the synthesis were characterized by swelling and deswelling kinetics, the first swelling being verified with Schott and statistical models, allowing to contrast the proximity between the experimental and theoretical behavior. Additionally, water retention in soil (R%), spectroscopy (FTIR), morphological (SEM), and thermal (TGA and DSC) analysis allowing to know the intrinsic characteristics of the material, increasing… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Study on the Tangential Tensile Mechanical Properties of Moso Bamboo

    Biqing Shu1,2, Lu Hong3, Suxia Li1,4, Yupeng Tao2, Jianxin Cui1, Naiqiang Fu2, Junbao Yu2, Chen Li2, Xiaoning Lu1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.8, pp. 2203-2216, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019882
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-Composite Materials and Structures-2021)
    Abstract In this work, we used tensile tests to analyze the tangential failure forms of raw bamboo and determine a relationship between tangential tensile strength, elastic modulus, position, density, and moisture content. We found that the tangential mechanical properties of the culm wall were mainly dependent on the mechanical properties of the basic structure of the thin wall. Formulas for calculating the tangential tensile strength of moso bamboo and adjusting the moisture content were also determined. The tangential tensile strength and the tangential tensile modulus of elasticity (TTMOE) followed: outer > middle > inner, and diaphragm > bamboo node > culm… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Pathways for Sustainable Utilization of Waste Chicken Eggshell

    Omojola Awogbemi1,*, Daramy Vandi Von Kallon1, Victor Sunday Aigbodion2,3
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.8, pp. 2217-2246, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019152
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract Chicken eggshell is one of the most common wastes generated from households, restaurants and other food processing outlets. Waste Chicken Eggshells (WCES) also constitutes an environmental nuisance and ends up discarded at dumping site with no consideration of further usage. The main constituent of WCES is calcium carbonate from which calcium or calcium oxide can be extracted for various applications. This current effort reviews recently published literature on the diverse applications of WCES. The considered utilization avenues include catalysts for biofuel production, construction industry, wastewater purification, industrial sector, food industry, medical, and agricultural applications. The specific areas of application apart… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Pathways for Sustainable Utilization of Waste Chicken Eggshell

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Development and Field Application of Phosphogypsum-Based Soil Subgrade Stabilizers

    Hongfei Yue1, Aiguo Fang2, Sudong Hua1,*, Zenghuan Gu3, Yu Jia1, Cheng Yang4
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.8, pp. 2247-2261, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018901
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Foam Materials and Composites)
    Abstract A phosphogypsum-based subgrade stabilizer (PBSS) was formulated using industrial by-product phosphogypsum (PG), mixed with slag and calcium-silicon-rich active material (GSR). The active powder (AP) was used to modify PBSS, and PBSS-AP was obtained. PBSS and PBSS-AP were each mixed with 10% silty soil, and cement and lime (CAL: 5% lime + 2% cement) were used as the traditional material for comparative experiments. Samples were cured under standard conditions, and tested for unconfined compressive strength (UCS), water stability, volume expansion, and leachate, to explore the stabilization effect of the three solidified materials on silty soil. The results showed that the comprehensive… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Sustainable Asphalt Concrete Containing RAP and Coal Gangue Aggregate: Performance, Costs, and Environmental Impact

    Yuquan Yao1, Jie Gao2,3, Jiangang Yang2,3,*, Bocheng Huang4, Liang Song5
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.8, pp. 2263-2285, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018911
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recycled Concrete Towards a Sustainable Society)
    Abstract The shortage of natural aggregates is becoming a severe problem in the pavement industry globally. To address this issue, in this study, an effort was made to use reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and coal gangue (CG) as coarse and fine aggregate, respectively for producing the hot mix asphalt (HMA). As the replacement of natural aggregate, there were seven types of HMA containing 20% and 40% RAP coarse aggregate content, and 10% and 25% CG fine aggregate content were designed and prepared. In addition, Marshall Stability test, rutting resistance test, immersion Marshall test, freezing-thaw splitting test, moisture-induced sensitivity test, and low-temperature… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Sustainable Asphalt Concrete Containing RAP and Coal Gangue Aggregate: Performance, Costs, and Environmental Impact

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Study on Acoustic Emission Characteristics of Self-Compacting Concrete under Uniaxial Compression Test

    Yongshuai Sun1,*, Guihe Wang2, Yixuan li2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.8, pp. 2287-2302, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019660
    Abstract To study the relationship between acoustic emission characteristic parameters of self-compacting concrete(SCC) and its destruction evolution, under uniaxial compression, acoustic emission(AE) tests are performed on C30 selfcompacting concrete test blocks that are preserved for 7 days and 28 days, the corresponding relationship among energy, amplitude, ring count and different failure stages of the specimens are analyzed by AE experiment, and the spatial distribution of AE in each stage is described by introducing location map. The test shows that there are two rules for the failure of SCC specimens cured for 7 days and 28 days: (1) The first failure law… More >

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