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Desorption Behavior and Thermogravimetric Analysis of Bio-Hardeners

Benoit Ndiwe1,2,3, Antonio Pizzi4,*, Hubert Chapuis5, Noel Konai6, Lionel Karga7, Pierre Girods4, Raidandi Danwe6,8

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Higher Technical Teacher Training College Douala (ENSET), University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon
2 Laboratory of Forest Resources and Wood Valorization (Larefob), ENSET of Douala, Douala, Cameroon
3 Department of Engineering Science, West University, Gustava Melius gata 2 S-461 32, Trollhättan, Sweden
4 LERMAB-ENSTIB, University of Lorraine, Epinal, 88051, France
5 Laboratoire D’Etudes et de Recherche sur le Matériau Bois LERMAB, Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France
6 Laboratory of Materials Mechanics, Structures and Integrated Manufacturing, National Advanced School of Engineering, Yaoundé 1 University, Yaoundé, Cameroon
7 Department of Mechanical Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Faculty of Mines and Petroleum Industries, University of Maroua, Kaélé, Cameroon
8 Laboratory of Mechanic, Materials and Building, Sahel Institute of Maroua University, Maroua, Cameroon

* Corresponding Author: Antonio Pizzi. Email: email

(This article belongs to the Special Issue: Renewable and Biosourced Adhesives-2021)

Journal of Renewable Materials 2022, 10(8), 2015-2027.


In this work, the thermal degradation and drying of bio-hardeners are investigated. Four bio-hardeners based on exudates of Senegalia senegal, Vachellia nilotica, Vachellia seyal, and Acacia Siebteriana were analyzed by FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis, and a desorption study was also conducted. The analysis by infrared spectroscopy indicates the existence of oligomers of different types all giving 5-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethylfuran and 2, 5-dihydroxymethylfuran which are then the real hardening molecules. The pyrolysis of these extracts reveals three main regions of mass loss, a first region is located between 25°C and 110°C reflecting the loss of water from the adhesive and the formation of some traces of volatile organic compounds such as CO2 and CO, a second zone characterized by the release of CO, CO2 and CH4 gases with peaks between 110° and 798.8°C. At the end of the analysis, about 22% of the initial mass remains undecomposed, this mass corresponds to the rigid segments of the bio-hardener which are not completely decomposed.

Graphical Abstract

Desorption Behavior and Thermogravimetric Analysis of Bio-Hardeners


Cite This Article

APA Style
Ndiwe, B., Pizzi, A., Chapuis, H., Konai, N., Karga, L. et al. (2022). Desorption behavior and thermogravimetric analysis of bio-hardeners. Journal of Renewable Materials, 10(8), 2015-2027.
Vancouver Style
Ndiwe B, Pizzi A, Chapuis H, Konai N, Karga L, Girods P, et al. Desorption behavior and thermogravimetric analysis of bio-hardeners. J Renew Mater. 2022;10(8):2015-2027
IEEE Style
B. Ndiwe et al., "Desorption Behavior and Thermogravimetric Analysis of Bio-Hardeners," J. Renew. Mater., vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 2015-2027. 2022.

cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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