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Development and Characterization of Eco-Friendly Non-Isocyanate Urethane Monomer from Jatropha curcas Oil for Wood Composite Applications

Samsul Bhakri1, Muhammad Ghozali2,*, Edy Cahyono1, Evi Triwulandari2, Witta Kartika Restu2, Nissa Nurfajrin Solihat3, Apri Heri Iswanto4,5, Petar Antov6, Viktor Savov6, Lee Seng Hua7, Erika Ayu Agustiany8, Lubos Kristak9, Widya Fatriasari3,*

1 Department of Chemistry, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Semarang, 50229, Indonesia
2 Research Center for Chemistry, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Serpong, 15314, Indonesia
3 Research Center for Biomass and Bioproducts, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Cibinong, 16911, Indonesia
4 Department of Forest Product, Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, 20155, Indonesia
5 JATI-Sumatran Forestry Analysis Study Center, Medan, 20155, Indonesia
6 Faculty of Forest Industry, University of Forestry, Sofia, 1797, Bulgaria
7 Laboratory of Biopolymer and Derivatives, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Product, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 43400, Malaysia
8 Department of Forest Products, Faculty of Forestry and Environment, IPB University, Bogor, 16680, Indonesia
9 Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology, Technical University in Zvolen, Zvolen, 96001, Slovakia

* Corresponding Authors: Muhammad Ghozali. Email: email; Widya Fatriasari. Email: widya.fatriasari@; email

(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advances in Eco-friendly Wood-Based Composites: Design, Manufacturing, Properties and Applications)

Journal of Renewable Materials 2023, 11(1), 41-59.


The aim of this research work was to evaluate the potential of using renewable natural feedstock, i.e., Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) for the synthesis of non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) resin for wood composite applications. Commercial polyurethane (PU) is synthesized through a polycondensation reaction between isocyanate and polyol. However, utilizing toxic and unsustainable isocyanates for obtaining PU could contribute to negative impacts on the environment and human health. Therefore, the development of PU from eco-friendly and sustainable resources without the isocyanate route is required. In this work, tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide was used as the activator to open the epoxy ring with 3-Aminopropyltriethoxisylane as a catalyst to yield urethane of JCO (UJCO). The UJCO were characterized by Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR) and their oxirane, and hydroxyl values were measured. The result showed that a decrease in oxirane value was found while the hydroxyl value was increased during the time, confirming that the urethane group was formed. The presence of functional groups in FTIR spectra at wave numbers 1732.08, 1562.34, and 3348.42 cm−1 indicates the functional groups of C = O (urethane carbonyl), –NH, and –OH, respectively confirmed this finding. The potential applications of NIPU in the wood composite were also outlined.

Graphical Abstract

Development and Characterization of Eco-Friendly Non-Isocyanate Urethane Monomer from <i>Jatropha curcas</i> Oil for Wood Composite Applications


Cite This Article

Bhakri, S., Ghozali, M., Cahyono, E., Triwulandari, E., Restu, W. K. et al. (2023). Development and Characterization of Eco-Friendly Non-Isocyanate Urethane Monomer from Jatropha curcas Oil for Wood Composite Applications. Journal of Renewable Materials, 11(1), 41–59.

cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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