Table of Content

Characterization of the Curing of Bio-Based Adhesives

Submission Deadline: 30 September 2023 Submit to Special Issue

Guest Editors

Milan Šernek, Professor, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Milan Šernek is a full professor at the Department of Wood Science and Technology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, where he teaches courses on adhesives and wood bonding, wood-based composites, and technological process design. He received his PhD at Virginia Tech, USA, with the thesis on bonding of inactivated wood surfaces. His research work focuses on wood adhesives, bio-based adhesives, bonding performance, curing kinetics of adhesives, bonding of modified wood and wood-based composites. He has published more than 200 peer-reviewed articles, books, book chapters, patents, and conference papers and supervised seven doctoral dissertations. He serves as an associate editor and member of the editorial board of several scientific journals.


Renewable resources can partially or completely replace petroleum-based polymers by developing bio-based polymers. In recent years, bio-based adhesives derived from natural sources are also gaining much interest in the wood industry due to the environmental concerns related to synthetic adhesives. The development of a new adhesive formulation and its successful application requires a characterization of the curing process that allows the determination of the optimal pressing parameters, which are essential from an economic point of view and in terms of bonding performances.


The curing process of adhesives can be monitored by various methods. The mechanical properties of the adhesive during curing can be studied using thermomechanical analysis (TMA), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), torsional braid analysis (TBA), integrated pressing and testing system (IPATES) and automated bonding evaluation system (ABES), etc. The cure characterization of adhesives can also be predicted by measuring other parameters using infrared/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (IR and FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), differential thermal analysis (DTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dielectric analysis (DEA), etc.


This Special Issue, Characterization of the curing of bio-based adhesives, seeks high quality contributions and topics related to the hardening/curing of bio-based adhesives and characterization of curing of bio-based adhesives using various methods and novel approaches. In particular, scientific contributions on bio-based adhesives for bonding wood and wood-based materials, but also for other applications, are expected.


Bio-based adhesives, curing, curing kinetics, curing characterization methods, hardening, renewable materials, wood

Published Papers

  • Open Access


    Characterization of Curing and Bonding of Wood with Adhesive Mixtures of Liquefied Wood and Hexamethylenediamine

    Jure Žigon, Vit Šeda, Petr Čermák, Milan Šernek
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.11, No.2, pp. 991-1001, 2023, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.023584
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Characterization of the Curing of Bio-Based Adhesives)
    Abstract Various crosslinking agents can be added to the formulations of natural-based adhesives for wood bonding in order to achieve better durability and higher strength of the formed joints. In the present study, the effect of hexamethylenediamine (HMDA) addition on the performance of liquefied wood (LW) adhesive for wood bonding is investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry showed the improved thermal stability and crosslinking of the LW adhesive with HMDA. The intensified presence of amide linkages (C–N bonds) was found in LW+HMDA with attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Analysis of the bonded joints using an automated bonding evaluation system showed that… More >

  • Open Access


    Curing Kinetics of Tannin and Lignin Biobased Adhesives Determined by DSC and ABES

    Jaša Saražin, Ida Poljanšek, Antonio Pizzi, Milan Šernek
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.8, pp. 2117-2131, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019602
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Characterization of the Curing of Bio-Based Adhesives)
    Abstract The curing process of two biobased adhesives: pine tanninhexamine (TH) and organosolv lignin non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU), suitable for interior nonstructural use, were compared with commercial urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesive. Changes in chemical structure before and after the curing process were observed with Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The process of adhesive curing was monitored with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the automated bonding evaluation system (ABES). Both DSC and ABES measurements confirmed UF as the fastest and NIPU as the slowest curing adhesive observed. Taking into account the ABES results, the optimal pressing parameters for the TH adhesive would be 4 min… More >

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