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With the increasing demand for flexible sensors, cellulose and its derivatives have combined superiorities such as intrinsic and structural flexibility, ease of chemical functionalization, moisture sensitivity, and mechanical stability enabling them to be widely applied in flexible sensors. The review discussed the latest advance in materials synthesis, structure design, fabrication control, and working mechanism of novel cellulose-based flexible sensors including strain sensors, humidity sensors, and harmful gas sensors.
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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Novel Bio-Based Zirconium Phosphonate as a Flame Retardant and Smoke Suppressant for Epoxy Resin

    Xianling Fu#, Hongliang Ding#, Xin Wang*, Lei Song, Yuan Hu*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.9, pp. 2303-2317, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.020759
    Abstract Although epoxy resin has been widely used in various fields, it still suffers from some problems including brittleness and flammability. In this study, a new phosphonic acid, N, N-bis(phosphomethyl) glycine (GDMP), was prepared by Mannich reaction with bio-based glycine and then a novel layered zirconium phosphonate (ZrGDMP) was synthesized using GDMP and zirconyl chloride hydrate as reactants. The chemical structure of ZrGDMP was well characterized by 1H and 31P NMR, SEM, XRD and XPS. The effect of ZrGDMP on the flame retardancy, smoke suppression, strengthening and toughening performances of the epoxy matrix was investigated and evaluated. TGA results indicated that… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    A Novel Bio-Based Zirconium Phosphonate as a Flame Retardant and Smoke Suppressant for Epoxy Resin

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Recent Progress in Cellulose-Based Flexible Sensors

    Ningli An1, Jingxuan Qin1, Xing Zhou1, Quandai Wang2, Changqing Fang1,*, Jiapeng Guo2, Bin Nan2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.9, pp. 2319-2334, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.021030
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Green, Recycled and Intelligent Technologies in Printing and Packaging)
    Abstract Flexible sensors are attractive due to potential applications in body exercise and ambient gas monitoring systems. Cellulose and its derivatives have combined superiorities such as intrinsic and structural flexibility, ease of chemical functionalization, moisture sensitivity, and mechanical stability, enabling them to be promising candidates as flexible supporting substrates and flexible sensitive materials. Significant progress consequently has been achieved to improve mechanical, electrical, and chemical performance. The latest advance in materials synthesis, structure design, fabrication control, and working mechanism of novel cellulose-based flexible sensors are reviewed and discussed, including strain sensors, humidity sensors, and harmful gas sensors. Various strategies were summarized… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Recent Progress in Cellulose-Based Flexible Sensors

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Glycated Hemoglobin HbA1c: Permittivity Experimental Applications with Some Mathematical Concepts, Temperature and Frequency Variations

    Soliman Abdalla1,2,*, Sherif Kandil2, Waleed El-Shirbeeny1, Fatma Bahabri1,3
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.9, pp. 2335-2354, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.021211
    Abstract Diabetes disorder turns smoothly to be a global epidemic disorder and the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) starts to be an efficient marker of it. The dielectric spectroscopy on different human normal- and diabetic-blood samples is used to characterize and to estimate the HbA1c concentration. “dc-” and ac-measurement of the complex conductivity in the temperature range from 280 K up to 320 K, and in the frequency range from one Hz up to 32 MHz have been performed. The thermal activation energy, ΔEσ, of dc-electric conductivity lies in the range 95 meV < ΔEσ < 115 meV; while the thermal activation energy,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    BaTiO3/Polyurethane Dielectric Composites with Diels-Alder Bond for Improved Self-Healing Properties

    Junlong Yao1,2, Wei Nie1, Zhengguang Sun2, Huan Yang1,3,*, Yu Guan1, Lin Gao4, Xueliang Jiang1, Mujie Guo1, Chuanxi Xiong5,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.9, pp. 2355-2364, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019339
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Renewable Energy Storage Materials and Their Composite: Preparation, Characterization and Applications)
    Abstract In general, self-healing dielectric composites are mainly composed of polar hydrogen bonds, which have high hydrophilicity and are unsuitable for humid environment. Dielectric composite with Diels-Alder (D-A) bond contains covalent bonds, it can be adopted as an efficient self-healing material. Here, we construct self-healing barium titanate (BT)/polyurethane (PU) dielectric composites by adopting PU with D-A bond as matrix (BT/ PU-DA). The prepared 10% BT/PU-DA composite exhibits superior self-healing ability than that of PU-DA. Moreover, its dielectric constant can reach 9.3 with a loss of only 0.04 at 1000 Hz and maintain 93% repair effi- ciency of tensile strength. The experimental… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The Fabrication of Water-Soluble Chitosan Capsule Shell Modified by Alginate and Gembili Starch (Dioscorea esculenta L)

    Yatim Lailun Ni’mah*, Suprapto Suprapto, Harmami, Ita Ulfin, Puput Asmaul Fauziyah
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.9, pp. 2365-2376, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.020001
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-based/Degradable Materials towards A Sustainable Future)
    Abstract Capsule shells have been successfully fabricated from water-soluble chitosan (WSC) with the addition of alginate and Gembili starch. WSC was synthesized from crab shell chitosan by depolymerization reaction. The capsule shells were made with the composition of WSC: Alginate, 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1 (w/w) with and without the addition of Gembili starch. Gembili starch was added with a ratio of Alginate: Starch, 1:1 (w/w). The capsule shell properties were evaluated according to Indonesian Pharmacopoeia standard. The solubility test showed that the capsule shells were comply with the standard. The highest degrees of swelling in water and HCl 0.1 N solution… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    The Fabrication of Water-Soluble Chitosan Capsule Shell Modified by Alginate and Gembili Starch (<i>Dioscorea esculenta</i> L)

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Remarkably Enhanced Photodegradation of Organic Pollutants by NH2-UiO-66/ZnO Composite under Visible-Light Irradiation

    Dehong Teng1,#, Jing Zhang1,#, Xinzhi Luo1, Fei Jing1, Hengwei Wang1, Jing Chen1,* , Chao Yang1, Shaohong Zang1,*, Yingtang Zhou1,2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.9, pp. 2378-2391, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019209
    Abstract Semiconductor photocatalysis is a novel highly efficient and low-cost method for removing organic pollutants from wastewater. However, the photoreduction performance of semiconductors on organic pollutants is limited due to the weak absorption of visible light caused by its wide band gap and low carrier utilization rate resulting from severe electron-holes recombination. In the present study, flower-like NH2-UiO-66 (NU66)/ZnO nanocomposites were prepared using a facile method and exhibited high efficiency under visible light driven photocatalysts. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmitor electron microscope (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the prepared samples, indicating that… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Remarkably Enhanced Photodegradation of Organic Pollutants by NH<sub>2</sub>-UiO-66/ZnO Composite under Visible-Light Irradiation

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Morphological Evaluation of PLA/Soybean Oil Epoxidized Acrylate Three-Dimensional Scaffold in Bone Tissue Engineering

    Mahmood Hameed Majeed*, Nabeel Kadhem Abd Alsaheb
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.9, pp. 2391-2408, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.019887
    Abstract Tissue engineering’s main goal is to regenerate or replace tissues or organs that have been destroyed by disease, injury, or congenital disabilities. Tissue engineering now uses artificial supporting structures called scaffolds to restore damaged tissues and organs. These are utilized to attach the right cells and then grow them. Rapid prototyping appears to be the most promising technology due to its high level of precision and control. Bone tissue replacement “scaffolding” is a common theme discussed in this article. The fused deposition technique was used to construct our scaffold, and a polymer called polylactic acids and soybean oil resin were… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Morphological Evaluation of PLA/Soybean Oil Epoxidized Acrylate Three-Dimensional Scaffold in Bone Tissue Engineering

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Environmental and Durability Perspective of the Use of Curaua Fiber Treated in Mortars

    Afonso R. G. de Azevedo1,*, Marcelo Nascimento2, Dirlane do Carmo3, Markssuel T. Marvila4, Gustavo de C. Xavier1, Sergio Neves Monteiro4
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.9, pp. 2409-2429, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.020503
    Abstract The use of natural lignocellulosic fibers (NLFs) as a reinforcement mechanism for cementitious composites, such as mortar, has been investigated in the last decades. However, their application has often been restricted to technological evaluation research. A NLF with great potential the curaua, which after treatment with NaOH solution, proved to be technologically feasible for mortars reinforcement based on cement and lime. The objective of this research was the comparative evaluation between a traditional mortar, based on cement and lime, with 1:1:6:0.8 ratio of cement: lime: sand: water, and a modified mortar with addition of 2 wt.% treated curaua fiber in… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    CO2 and Cost-Based Optimum Design of Sustainable Metakaolin-Modified Concrete

    Xiaoyong Wang*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.9, pp. 2431-2450, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.020829
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Sustainable Concrete with Recyclable Materials)
    Abstract Metakaolin is a highly reactive pozzolanic material that is widely utilized for enhancing the performance of concrete. This study offers a framework for the mixture design of sustainable metakaolin-modified concrete with low CO2 emissions and low costs. Different design strengths after 28 days are first formulated, with values such as 30, 40, 50, and 60 MPa. A genetic algorithm is then used to determine the optimal mixtures. Minimized CO2 and cost are set as the aims of the genetic algorithm. The strength of the concrete, its workability (slump), and carbonation service life with climate change are set as constraints of the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Comparative Study on the Properties of Inorganic Silicate and Organic Phenolic Prepolymer Modified Poplar Wood by Vacuum Cycle Pressurization

    Pengfei Guan1, Ping Li2, Yiqiang Wu1, Xingong Li1, Guangming Yuan1, Yingfeng Zuo1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.9, pp. 2451-2463, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.020459
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-Composite Materials and Structures-2021)
    Abstract To enhance mechanical properties and improve flame retardancy and smoke suppression of fast-growing poplar wood in wood applications, the wood was impregnated and modified. An organic phenolic prepolymer and inorganic sodium silicate was used as contrasting impregnation modifiers and wood samples were impregnated by a bionic “respiration” method with alternating positive and negative pressure. The weight percentage gain, density increase ratio, mechanical properties (bending and compressive strength and hardness), and water absorption rate of inorganic and organic-impregnated modified poplar wood (IIMPW and OIMPW, respectively) were compared and these properties in IIMPW were found to be higher than those of OIMPW… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Characterization of Nanocomposite Membrane Based Bacterial Cellulose Made of Pineapple Waste Reinforced by Graphite Nanoplatelets

    Heru Suryanto1,2,*, Bili Darnanto Susilo3, Jibril Maulana3, Aminnudin3, Uun Yanuhar4, Surjani Wonorahardjo2,5, Husni Wahyu Wijaya2,5, Abu Saad Ansari6
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.9, pp. 2455-2465, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.020478
    Abstract Waste is the main problem for the environment. Handling waste for various useful applications has a benefit for the future. This work has been studied for handling pineapple peel waste to make composite film bacterial cellulose nanocomposite membrane (BCNM) with addition graphite nanoplatelet (GNP). The concentration of GNP in the membrane influence the membrane properties. The bacterial cellulose (BC) pellicle was synthesized by using media from pineapple peel waste extract. BC pellicle is cleaned with water and NaOH solution to be free from impactors. BCNM is synthesized through the mechanical disintegration stage. The results of disintegration using high pressure homogenizer… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Characterization of Nanocomposite Membrane Based Bacterial Cellulose Made of Pineapple Waste Reinforced by Graphite Nanoplatelets

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Engineered Wood/Bamboo Laminated Composites for Outdoor Hydrophilic Platforms: Structural Design and Performance

    Lifeng Ji, Qiuxia Zhang, Fei Rao*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.9, pp. 2477-2487, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.021761
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Functionalization of Wood and Bamboo-Based Materials)
    Abstract Landscape designers increasingly prefer to use wood/bamboo-based composites for outdoor hydrophilic platforms owing to their natural surface texture, high performance, and sustainability to facilitate extensive interaction between people and water and enable the full range of ecological functions of water resources. In this study, four laminated composite (LC) structures were designed and manufactured using fluffed bamboo and wood veneers. Their surface textures, profile densities, water resistances, and mechanical properties were then evaluated. The type of fluffed veneer of the surface layer determined the texture of the LC surface. The specific structures of fluffed bamboo and wood veneer laminations were found… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of Chlorine Salt on Durability of Mineral Admixture Concrete under Different Conditions

    Xupeng Chen1,*, Zhuowen Sun2, Jianyong Pang1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.9, pp. 2489-2508, 2022, DOI: 10.32604/jrm.2022.019404
    Abstract Mineral admixture concrete is a renewable material. It requires less cement than ordinary concrete and is thus beneficial for economical use of resources and environmental protection. To examine the impact of chloride salt on the durability of mineral admixture concrete under various conditions, in this study, test blocks are divided into two major groups: in one group, the test block is eroded by chloride salt on the interior and by sulphate/ magnesium salts on the exterior, and in the second group, the test block is eroded by external chloride/sulphate/ magnesium salts. Clean water is considered the control group. Dry-wet alternation… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Effect of Chlorine Salt on Durability of Mineral Admixture Concrete under Different Conditions

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